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Did Christ Really Rise From the Dead?

Written by: De Haan, Martin R. II    Posted on: 05/12/2003

Category: Bible Studies

Source: CCN

CHRIST: His Resurrection

Did Christ Really Rise From the Dead?

     So much depends on the answer to this question.  The reliability of the Bible.  The answer to man's search for meaning.  The destiny of all people.  It all depends on whether Jesus is alive or whether His body never left the grave.      No matter which side of the issue you are on--a Christian who has faith in the resurrection or a non-believer who finds this miracle too good to be true--we hope this booklet will help you. In it Dave Branon has explored why we can trust the biblical account of what happened that first Easter morning.

                                                    Martin R. De Haan II

* Are We Too Sophisticated?

     Consider for a moment what mankind has accomplished.  We've built spaceships that can leave our solar system.  We've transplanted hearts into week-old babies.  We've computerized everything from architecture to zoology.  We've made tremendous progress in many areas of life.      Then why go backward?  Why step 2,000 years into history to put our faith in an event that violates the laws of science?  Why insist that the resurrection is anything more than a myth?  After all, isn't "Dead Man Comes Alive" the kind of headline we usually expect to find on those tabloids that litter supermarket checkout lanes?      Can educated, refined people living on the threshold of the 21st century be convinced that Jesus really did come back from the dead? Many say no.  They feel we have progressed too far to consider the resurrection of Jesus to be an authentic historical event.  These skeptics say:

   "Miracles are not scientific."  To people of science, dead means dead.  They have no evidence that anything that was dead ever came back to life spontaneously.  Therefore, they aren't easily convinced that one special case the normal processes of decay were halted.  It goes against all of their established data to believe that a dead man came back to life.    "It was spiritual, not physical, resurrection."  Some "enlightened" modern-day skeptics maintain that the disciples did not really see Jesus with their eyes; they "saw" Him with their hearts.  They had a spiritual awakening because of Jesus' great sacrifice, and that spurred them on to preach about Him.  Thus, He could be "resurrected" in the heart of anyone who accepted His teachings.  To those who hold this view, Jesus was a great teacher whose ministry ended on the cross but whose influence continues through His words and philosophies.    "The biblical accounts are too contradictory."  Some people think that if the gospel writers couldn't agree on all the details, then we cannot be sure they got any part of the story straight.  For instance, they point out that each of the four accounts of the morning scene at the tomb records a different number of women who were there.  "A contemporary thinker," they say, "could never accept as evidence a story with such discrepancies."    "The historical accounts aren't trustworthy."  Obviously, no reporters from the Jerusalem Star were at the garden on that resurrection morning to record the event.  Therefore, the nonbiblical historical accounts we have concerning Jesus' resurrection were written some time after the event.  To people who have grown accustomed to on-the-spot reporting and instantaneous news, that alone makes those accounts undependable.

     So the question remains.  Can a technologically advanced society that continues to open new vistas of scientific knowledge believe in a miracle that 20 centuries of research have not been able to duplicate? We say it can.

* Why is This So Important?

| If Jesus is, as the resurrection asserts, God Himself who has come to | our rescue, then to reject Him, or even to neglect Him, is sheer | folly.  That is why Jesus is not, never has been, and never can be | just among the religious leaders of mankind."  -- Michael Green

     Think of the key world events of your lifetime.  The Reagan-Gorbachev talks.  The Challenger space shuttle tragedy.  The devastating Mexico City earthquake of 1985.  The Camp David peace accord.  Watergate.  The oil crisis of the 70s.  The Vietnam War.  Man landing on the moon.  Perhaps you've been around long enough to recall the assassination of President Kennedy.  Hiroshima.  The Holocaust. Pearl Harbor.  Whatever comes to mind, you can be sure of this:  No event in this century has affected every human on earth--no matter where he lives.      Now think back through history.  The Civil War.  The storming of the Bastille.  The American Revolution.  The discovery of the New World. The invention of the printing press.  The signing of the Magna Carta. The Battle of Hastings.  The Fall of the Roman Empire.  Each of these events had extraordinary historical significance.  But none of them has the kind of monumental, worldwide, eternal effects that one event almost 2,000 years ago claims to have.  This event?  The resurrection of Jesus Christ.      The Bible says that God came to earth as a man to pay the penalty of death for the sins of the world (John 1:1-29; Romans 6:23).  But the Bible also says that if Jesus did not overpower death's grip to escape that cold, rocky tomb, He would not be able to provide us with victory over death (1 Corinthians 15:12-19).      The implications of the resurrection of Jesus Christ must be considered honestly..  Everything depends on it.  Here is what Paul wrote:

     [God] commands all men everywhere to repent, because He has      appointed a day on which He will judge the world in      righteousness by the Man whom He has ordained.  He has given      assurance of this to all by raising Him from the dead (Acts      17:30,31).

     According to the Bible, the eternal destiny of every human is at stake.  We can live forever under God's blessing in heaven, or we can suffer endlessly under Satan's devastating tyranny in hell.  It all depends on our response to Jesus and His resurrection.      So why is the resurrection so important in this sophisticated, advanced age?  Sophistication and advancement have nothing to do with it.  History is in God's hands, and He alone must be satisfied.  Not scientists.  Not philosophers.  Not educators.  That's why what you believe about the resurrection is a matter of eternal life or eternal death.



* Let's Get Logical

| The Christian Savior had lived and associated with men whose minds and | senses apprehended His person, acts, and character.  These witnesses | had transmitted their knowledge directly, and they had testified to | the life of Jesus Christ and His teaching.  Jesus was then a | historical, not a mythical being.  --Clifford Moore

     Truth is not negotiable.  Historical statements of fact are not open to question.  When we read, for example, that George Washington and his men spent the winter of 1777 enduring wretched conditions at Valley Forge, we are obligated to believe it.  Although none of us observed their long, deadly winter, what we know about it is supported by the written testimony of those who were there and by the scholarship of later inquirers who studied the Revolutionary War.  The written accounts may differ on a few minor details, but we know that we can trust the record of the historians.      In a historical sense, the resurrection stands on just as solid ground as the story of George Washington's winter at Valley Forge. Reliable witnesses wrote about meeting and talking with Jesus after His death.  Skeptical enemies noticed His disappearance from the tomb. Extrabiblical, historical reports were given of His resurrection. Eyewitnesses of Jesus' post-death appearances died defending their belief in it.      In order for an honest historian to be convinced that something actually happened, he needs to see two specific criteria met: (1) The event in question must be supported by the testimony of believable, trustworthy witnesses.  And (2) the circumstantial evidence must be authentic.  When both of these demands are clearly supported by the evidence at hand, the inquirer is compelled by logic to believe that the event actually took place.  We will see that each of these criteria is met by the things we know about the resurrection.      Even so, some still don't believe.  To make that refusal, a person must not only reject the eyewitness accounts and the circumstantial evidence, but he must make an even greater leap.  The person who thinks that the resurrection is a fraud or a hoax must reject the entire New Testament.  There can be no picking and choosing.  If the resurrection is a hoax, then so is the New Testament and everything Jesus said or did.  Claiming that Christ was a great teacher or a prophet--as even most unbelievers attest--while rejecting His resurrection is an impossible position.  Consider what Jesus said during His ministry-- before the crucifixion:

     The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the      elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be      raised the third day (Luke 9:22).

     For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the      great fish, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights      in the heart of the earth (Matthew 12:40).

     Think about it.  Wouldn't we consider a man who made such wild claims to be untrustworthy if he couldn't follow through on his predictions?  Instead of calling such a person a great teacher, wouldn't we call him a charlatan and a threat to mankind?  There can be no middle ground.  If Jesus did not do what He said He would do, He must be rejected completely.  And along with Him go the Old Testament Scriptures (because of the predictions of the Messiah's coming), the trustworthiness of Paul (who converted to Christ at the cost of beatings, imprisonments, and banishment from his former colleagues), and 2,000 years of church history (which rests solely on the resurrection).

     The evidence to be presented in the next few pages is based on the biblical and historical data as we know it.  We will see why both secular and religious scholars find Jesus to be a captivating historical person.  So, let's get logical.  Let's take a hard look at the evidence that gives us reason to believe that Jesus rose from the dead.

| It may be said that the historical evidence for the resurrection is | stronger than for any other miracle anywhere narrated. |  -- William Lyon Phelps, Yale

* The Evidence: He Arose

OBSERVATION 1:  He Was Dead

     We have to start with the bad news.  Jesus' confrontation with the religious leaders of Israel cost Him His life.  When His body was removed from that awful cross of Golgotha, He was dead.  As horrible as this fact is, the validity of the resurrection accounts hinges on it.      If, as some critics say, Jesus did no more than faint from the pain, there would be no need for a resurrection.  For a person to be raised from the dead, he must first have died.  To deny Christ's death, therefore, is to remove all possibility of resurrection.  But the Bible teaches that He died.      In the four gospel accounts of Jesus' crucifixion, His death is spoken of in two distinct terms.  In Matthew 27:50 and in John 19:30, the writers said He "yielded" or "gave up" His spirit.  The other accounts both record that He "breathed His last" (Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46).      Remarkably, Matthew, Mark, and Luke each recorded a simultaneous event that occurred some distance from Calvary.  They wrote that as Jesus died, "the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom" (Mark 15:38).  This miracle signaled the end of the Old Testament era of limited access to God and the cessation of animal sacrifices.  But that's not all it meant.  It also verified Jesus' death because it demonstrated that His complete sacrifice had satisfied God's demands. For centuries, God had required the death of an unblemished lamb as an atonement for sin.  Now Jesus, the sinless Lamb of God, had become the final sacrifice.  The veil was no longer needed, for access to God had been opened to all who would believe in Him.      The following events at the site of the crucifixion verify that Jesus was dead:

  o  The Roman soldiers did not break Jesus' legs because they "saw that      he was already dead" (John 19:33).   o  The soldiers plunged a spear into Jesus' side, and from it came      both water and blood (John 19:34).  Medical experts say that if He      were not already dead, this in itself would have killed Him.      Others have concluded that the pouring out of water and blood from      His side was proof that Jesus was no longer alive.   o  When Joseph of Arimathea asked for the body of Christ so he and      Nicodemus could bury Him, Pontius Pilate ordered a centurion to      verify that Jesus was dead (Mark 15:43-45).  The Roman governor      would not release the body to Joseph until the centurion was      certain that all signs of life were gone.  You can be sure that an      officer in the Roman army would not make a mistake about an      important manner like this in his report to such a high official as      Pilate.   o  Joseph and Nicodemus prepared the body for burial according to      Jewish custom.  This included wrapping it "in a clean linen cloth"      (Matthew 27:59), anointing the body with "a mixture of myrrh and      aloes" (John 19:39), and placing it "in a tomb which had been hewn      out of the rock (Mark 15:46).  It seems obvious that any sign of      life would have been detected by these bereaved friends.  Surely      they would not have buried a breathing Jesus.   o  The Pharisees and chief priests met with Pilate to discuss what had      occurred.  They made such remarks as "while He was still alive"      (Matthew 27:63), and they ordered soldiers to secure the grave with      a seal.  In addition, they placed guards on duty to prevent the      disciples from coming to "steal Him away" (v.64).  They knew beyond      doubt that Jesus was dead.

| [Jesus] was crucified and died under Pontius Pilate.  He really, and | not merely in appearance, was crucified, and died, and in the sight of | beings in heaven and on earth, and under the earth.... He also arose | again in 3 days.  --Ignatius, 2nd century historian

OBSERVATION 2:  An Empty Tomb

| The resurrection proclamation could not have been maintained in | Jerusalem for a single day, for a single hour, if the emptiness of | the tomb had not been established as a fact.  --Paul Althus

     The Sabbath had ended, and Jesus' friends could now come to visit the tomb.  As morning broke on the new day, the women who had watched Joseph and Nicodemus bury Jesus came back to anoint His body.  It was Sunday now--a somber day that as far as the women knew, would be followed by many more days just like it.  They were undoubtedly resigned to a future of sad pilgrimages such as this one.  They knew nothing else they could do for their fallen loved one but to grieve at His tomb and to put spices on His body.  But what a surprise lay ahead!      As they walked toward the garden, they worked aloud about who could roll away the heavy stone so they could go inside the tomb and apply their spices.  But when they arrived, they saw that the stone had already been moved!  Then they were greeted by an angel, who told them that Jesus had arisen.      With this background in mind, let's look at the evidence that the tomb was empty.  First, we can depend on the historical record.  Surely the authorities of Jesus' day wanted nothing more than to have Jesus stay where Joseph had put him.  The mere fact that they put an official Roman seal on the tomb and placed guards to protect it--a highly unusual act--indicated that they were determined to keep the body behind the stone barrier.  Suppose they had been able to do that.  You can be sure the Sanhedrin and other officials would have been the first to use the knowledge of an occupied tomb as evidence when the disciples began to announce to everyone that they had seen Jesus alive.  Yet no historical evidence exists to suggest that those officials knew where the body was. As we will see, the evidence shows that it was no longer in the tomb.      Second, there is something even more conclusive than the officials' inaction--the actions of several eyewitnesses.  The first to see and report the empty tomb were the women with the spices.  Mark's account sets the scene for us:

     And entering the tomb, they saw a young man clothed in a long      white robe sitting on the right side; and they were alarmed.      But he said to them, "Do not be alarmed.  You seek Jesus of      Nazareth, who was crucified.  He is risen!  He is not here"      (16:5,6).

     John and Peter were next to see that Jesus was gone.  When they heard the unbelievably good news from Mary and the other women, they raced to the gravesite.  John got to the tomb first but didn't go in. Instead, he peered through the opening and saw the linen wrappings that Jesus had left behind.      Characteristically, Peter was not content with a long-distance view.  He charged right into the tomb and spied the linen wrappings and the face cloth lying undisturbed and neatly arranged.  Then John entered and saw the wrappings.  John, it should be noted, is the one who wrote this account as recorded in chapter 20 of his gospel.  If you need an eyewitness to convince you that the tomb was empty, you have one in the apostle John.  He was there, and he wrote down what he saw.  That is solid historical evidence in anyone's book.      A third strong piece of evidence that the tomb was empty is the reaction of the authorities when the guards reported the events in the garden.  They wanted to destroy the credibility and influence of Jesus. Therefore, they would surely have been foolish to spread the rumor that the disciples had stolen the body--if Jesus were still in the tomb.  No, Jesus' disappearance was the sole cause for their concern.  Surely their collusion with the guards is solid proof that there was no body in the tomb.      We are faced with two facts.  (1) Jesus died and was buried.  (2) in a short time, His tomb became empty.  The question remains: Where was Jesus?

OBSERVATION 3:  The Appearances of Jesus

| For Jesus appeared to them the third day alive again, as the holy | prophets had predicted.  --Josephus, 1st century historian

     Jesus' friends weren't looking for what they were about to see. Although they had heard and closely followed Jesus' teaching for 3 years, they just never fully understood that He was going to rise from the dead.  Therefore, they would have had no reason to make up stories in which they claimed to have seen Him.  To them, that wasn't even an option.  Sure, they missed Jesus.  And just as any of us who has lost a loved one or friend longs to see him, so did they have the desire to see Jesus.  But they didn't expect they ever would (see John 20:9).      Yet see Him they did!  First at the tomb.  Then on the dusty Emmaus road.  Then in the upper room.  Over and over, in different settings, Jesus appeared to His friends.  For 40 days He made His presence known throughout the land (Acts 1:1-3).  Let's look at who saw Jesus and where He appeared.  it's one more piece of evidence for the resurrection.

     Mary Magdalene--tomb (John 20:11-18).  Mary had been standing outside the empty tomb crying because, as she said, "They have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid Him" (John 20:13). His death, combined with her fear that His body had been stolen, had engulfed her in heart-wrenching despair.  But when Jesus startled her into recognizing Him by calling out, "Mary!" she rushed to Him in joy and relief.  Then she ran to tell the disciples that she had seen the Lord.

     Several women--near the tomb (Matthew 28:9,10).  These women had already heard that Jesus was alive, even though they had not yet seen Him.  They had just left the tomb, where an angel had told them that Jesus had "risen from the dead."  When they saw the Lord, they "held Him by the feet and worshipped Him" (Matthew 28:9).  Jesus told them to spread the news that He was alive and to tell the disciples to meet Him in Galilee.

     Two disciples---Emmaus road (Luke 24:13-32).  Imagine the drama of this scene.  Two disciples were walking the 7 dusty miles from Jerusalem to Emmaus when a fellow traveller caught up with them and struck up a conversation--asking what they were talking about.  Apparently they had been discussing the death and entombment of Jesus, because they were surprised that the stranger wasn't familiar with their topic.  They said in effect, "Do you mean to say that you don't know about Jesus' death?" The two then explained why they were so sad--that though some women had seen the empty tomb and claimed that Jesus was alive, they had not yet seen Him.  These disciples would not believe without seeing the evidence for themselves.      An exciting surprise awaited the pair when they arrived at Emmaus. The three of them stopped to eat, and as they ate, the disciples' "eyes were opened" and they recognized that this mysterious stranger was Jesus.  But before they could speak again, He "vanished from their sight" (Luke 24:31).

     Peter--unknown location (Luke 24:33-35).  In this passage, we are not given a direct look at the meeting between Peter and Jesus.  All we know is that when the disciples who had been to Emmaus returned, they learned that Peter had seen the Lord too.  Imagine the excitement that must have been generated in that place!

     Ten disciples--upper room (Luke 24:36-43).  Suddenly this praise meeting of the disciples was interrupted.  As they sat comparing notes about the thrilling reality of seeing Jesus, He appeared in the room. As might be expected, the men were startled because they thought they were seeing a spirit (Luke 24:37).  Jesus quickly laid that idea to rest by offering to have them touch His hands and feet, and by eating supper with them.

     Eleven disciples--upper room (John 20:26-31).   It must have been a long week for Thomas.  The other 10 disciples had met with Jesus in the upper room, but he had not.  Surely they had spent time trying to convince Thomas that they really had seen Jesus.  But he reacted as they had whey they heard from the women who first saw Jesus.  They were not convinced without hard evidence, and Thomas wanted the same advantage. Now he was about to get it, Jesus suddenly appeared to the men and said to Thomas, "Reach your finger here, and look at My hands..." (John 20:27).  Then Thomas believed exclaiming, "My Lord and my God!"

     Seven men--Sea of Galilee (John 21:1-25).  Things had begun to return to normal for the disciples.  They had gone back to work--some as fishermen on an all-night fishing trip on the Sea of Galilee.  But the fish weren't cooperating, and the men had an empty boat.  As daylight broke over the water, they saw a man standing on the shore, shouting advice to them.  The seven seamen did what He suggested and nearly capsized their boat with all the fish they dragged ashore.      When John informed Peter, "It is the Lord!" (John 21:7), Peter dove in and swam to shore.  When they all arrived on the beach, they saw that Jesus had prepared a hot breakfast of fish and bread for them.  Jesus then offered to cook a few of the fish they had just caught.

     Eleven disciples--a mountain (Matthew 28:16-20).  This is the first planned meeting between the disciples and Jesus that is recorded after the resurrection.  Matthew wrote that the disciples proceeded "to Galilee, to the mountain which Jesus had appointed for them" (28:16). There He met with the Eleven, and probably some others.  Perhaps this included the "500 brethren" mentioned in 1 Corinthians 15:6.      What is significant is that even though the Eleven worshiped Jesus when they saw Him, "some doubted" (Matthew 28:17).  Although it is possible that a few of these men were still doubting Jesus' resurrection, it is more probable that the skeptics were disciples who didn't have the advantage of touching Jesus and eating with Him.  They would naturally have been more hesitant to believe that this was the same man who had been crucified a few weeks before.  Yet the fact that doubters are mentioned shows that the disciple who wrote the account was not afraid to talk about the skepticism of some of the observers.

     Disciples--near Bethany (Acts 1:9-12).  The final appearance of Jesus to His disciples ended with His disappearance.  As He stood talking with them about the command He had just given them to be His witnesses, "He was taken up, and a cloud received Him out of their sight" (Acts 1:9).  This turned out to be a commencement of sorts for the disciples.  Just a few weeks before, they had been a disheartened group whose leader was dead.  Now, they were enthusiastic evangelists. They "returned to Jerusalem with great joy" (Luke 24:52), and "they went out and preached everywhere" (Mark 16:20).      The evidence was clear, Jesus was alive.  Now their job was to go and tell people about it.

OBSERVATION 4:  Reactions of Officials

     A Roman soldier was no coward.  He was a specially trained, toughminded, well-equipped warrior.  Yet notice the reaction of the soldiers who were protecting Jesus' tomb when they felt the earth move and saw an angel roll back the stone (Matthew 28:2).  They "shook for fear of him, and became like dead men" (v.4).      They probably realized that they had more to be afraid of than an angel.  Their training told them that keeping watch was an important commission.  They knew that various punishments were handed out to soldiers who couldn't stay awake on guard duty.  Sometimes they were beaten; other times they were set afire.  Most of the time they were executed.  These brave, well-armed men had no way to stop the angel, so they had more than one reason to be afraid.      But look what they did next.  They turned themselves in!  Facing sure punishment, they still felt that they must report this amazing event to their superiors.  Once they had spilled their story to the chief priests and elders, their fears turned to relief.  The officials, realizing that sending Jesus to His death had not accomplished their purpose, decided to concoct a story.  They bribed the soldiers to spread the phone news that "His disciples came at night and stole Him away while we slept" (Matthew 28:13).      The soldiers must have done what they were told for Matthew commented that the story begun by those chief priests was "commonly reported among the Jews until this day" (Matthew 28:15).  Devised in the face of the fact of the resurrection, this fabrication stayed alive for many years among those who refused to believe that Jesus arose.      It wouldn't have taken much effort to refute their story.  First, if the disciples had indeed been able to steal the body of Jesus, how would the guards have known that it was they who had stolen it?  Didn't the story go, "while we were asleep?"  Second, it seems preposterous that a group of men could have sneaked up on highly trained, albeit slumbering, soldiers without waking them.  And then to think that they could have moved the stone, unwrapped 100 pounds of graveclothes, folded them neatly, lifted the body, and carried it away while the soldiers slept is even more ridiculous.      Yes, the officials knew that Jesus had risen.  Their reaction proves it.  Their bribe verifies it.  And their hastily concocted story authenticates it.

OBSERVATION 5:  Outlook of the Disciples

| Nothing less than a witness as awesome as the resurrected Christ | could have caused those men to maintain to their dying whispers | that Jesus is alive.  --Charles Colson

     Sometimes you have to wonder about the disciples.  They certainly didn't seem to be the kind of men you would recruit if you wanted to promote a revolutionary concept.  For instance, when Jesus tried to explain to them what would happen in the days ahead, they often misunderstood.  When He asked some of them to stay with Him during His all-night prayer vigil, they kept falling asleep.  When He talked of servanthood, they argued about their own greatness.  When He tried to tell them that He would be raised up after 3 days they didn't get it.      On the night Jesus was arrested, the disciples ran for their lives. Peter couldn't even stand up to a servant girl when she identified him as a friend of Jesus.  The disciples just didn't seem like the men of action you would need if you wanted to win a following and influence the world.      But something happened to change all that.  What would change a cowardly group of mourners into a courageous band of evangelists who were willing to stand up and testify that the crucified Jesus was alive? What changed them into willing martyrs for their faith?      Some would say that the disciples had nothing stronger to spur them on than a story they had made up.  But can you imagine what it would take to believe this?  Just picture Peter standing up before the disciples, who had remained safely hidden behind locked doors after Jesus' death for fear of their lives, and saying, "Well, the entire weight of the Roman government was just used to put Jesus to death by crucifixion.  Even though He is still dead, we are going to start a rumor that He isn't.  We are going to say that He rose from the tomb and that we all saw Him."      Is that what happened?  If so, then why would they later risk their lives for nothing?  If they hadn't even understood for sure that Jesus planned to rise from the dead, why would they break out of their anonymity with such far-fetched scheme?  And why would they record their fabrication in the gospel accounts, complete with details?      A fictional story can't possibly account for the changes in the disciples.  Take for instance the transformation of Thomas.  Of all the disciples, he seemed the least likely to be convinced.  His pessimism was first revealed earlier, when Jesus mentioned His plans to go to Bethany where Lazarus had just died.  Thomas had suggested to his fellow disciples, "Let us also go, that we may die with Him" (John 11:16). Although this statement suggests a degree of courage, it also implies that Thomas was resigned to martyrdom.  If that was his typical response, it is no wonder he responded to the disciples' claim that they had seen Jesus after His death by saying, "Unless I see... I will not believe" (John 20:25).  Does this sound like someone who is willing to rekindle the anger of the Roman officials by claiming that Jesus was alive if He really wasn't?      Now look at Thomas a week

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