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SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY ANTHROPOLOGY PART 3 of 3

Written by: Hillebrand, Randall    Posted on: 05/05/2005

Category: Theology

Source: www.hillebrandministries.com

OUTLINE:

  I.  Anthropology: Definition of

II.  Existence of man: Theories
      A.  Theistic views
          1.  Day-age theory
          2.  Theistic evolution
          3.  Gap theory
          4.  Literal 24-hour-day
      B.  Atheistic view

III. Essence of man
     A.  Material
     B.  Non-material
         1.  Elements which comprise
             a.  Soul/spirit
                 1) Soul
                 2)  Spirit
                 3)  Views of soul and spirit
                     a)  Dichotomous view
                     b)  Trichotomous view
             b.  Heart  
             c.  Mind
             d.  Conscience
             e.  Flesh
         2.  Theories of non-material essence of man
             a.  Theory of preexistence
             b.  Creation theory
             c.  Traducian theory
     C.  Made in the image of God
         1.  Meaning of the terms
         2.  How do we resemble God?
         3.  Are we still in the image and likeness of God?

IV.  Fall of man
     A.  Facts
         1.  Fall of mankind (Adam & Eve) -- Gen. 3:1-5:32
             a.  The sin of Adam and Eve -- Gen. 3:1-24
                 1)  The temptation of Eve and the fall -- vss. 1-7
                     a)  Identification of the serpent -- vs. 1a
                     b)  Temptation of Eve -- vss. 1b-5
                         1.  Eve detracted from what God had said
                         2.  Eve added a prohibition God had not given
                         3.  Eve lessened the consequence of disobeying God's
                             command
                     c)  Result of the temptation of Eve -- vss. 6-7
                 2)  The accusations associated with the fall --  vss. 8-13
                 3)  The curses associated with the fall -- vss. 14-19
                     a)  For the serpent -- vss. 14-15
                         1.  All creation was cursed -- vs. 14a-d
                         2.  The serpent was cursed -- vs. 14
                             a.  Serpent was cursed more than any other animal
                             b.  Serpent was to eat dust as it crawled on its belly all the
                                 days of its life
                             c.  Satan would have enmity between him and the woman
                             d.  Satan would have enmity between his seed and the
                                 woman's seed
                             e.  Satan would be bruised on the head though he would
                                 only bruise the woman's seed on the heel
                     b)  For the woman -- vs. 16
                         1.  Her pain in childbirth would be greatly multiplied -- vs.
                             16a-c
                         2.  Her desire would be to rule over her husband -- vs. 16d-e
                     c)  For the man -- vss. 17-19
                         1.  Reason for Adam's curse -- vs. 17a-d
                             a.  "Because you have listened to the voice of your wife"
                             b.  Because you "have eaten from the tree about which I
                                 commanded you, saying, 'You shall not eat from it'"
                         2.  The curse -- vss. 17e-19
                             a.  Cursed is the ground -- vss. 17e-19a
                                 1)  Toil -- vs. 17e-g
                                 2)  Thorns and thistles -- vs. 18
                                 3)  Sweat -- vs. 19a
                             b.  You shall return to the ground -- vs. 19b-e
                 4)  The actions of God because of the fall -- vss. 20-24
                     a)  God made Adam and Eve garments -- vss. 20-21
                     b)  God  sent Adam and Eve out of the garden -- vss. 22-23
                     c)  God kept Adam and Eve from the tree of life -- vs. 24
         2.  Results of the fall
             a.  Sin entered the world -- cf. Gen. 4:8
             b.  Wickedness spread throughout the world -- Gen. 6:5
             c.  Mankind became condemned -- Rom. 5:8
     B.  Sin
     C.  Consequences
         1.  To Adam & Eve: Personally
             a.  Physical
             b.  Spiritual
         2.  To mankind: Individually
             a.  Sin
                 1)  Definition: Imputation
                 2) Original sin
                    a)  Its imputation -- Rom. 5:12-14
                    b)  Its condemnation -- Rom. 5:15-17
                    c)  Its result -- Rom. 5:18-21
                3)  Theories of imputation of sin
                    a.  Pelagian Theory
                    b.  Arminian Theory
                    c.  Federal Theory
                    d.  Augustinian Theory (or The Realistic Theory)
                    e.  The Theory of Mediate Imputation
                    f.  The Corporate Personality Theory
                4)  Biblical arguments (From Romans 5:12-21)
            b.  Other consequences
                1)  Sin nature and total depravity of man
                    a) Sin nature
                    b)  Total depravity
                2)  Death
                    a)  Physical
                    b)  Spiritual
                3)  Guilt
                4)  Spiritual consequences
     E.  Man's need: Christ
         1.  Forgiveness
         2.  Justification
         3.  New nature/self

BODY:

IV.  Fall of man
     A.  Facts
         1.  Fall of mankind (Adam & Eve) -- Gen. 3:1-5:32
             a.  The sin of Adam and Eve -- Gen. 3:1-24
                 1)  The temptation of Eve and the fall -- vss. 1-7
                     a)  Identification of the serpent -- vs. 1a
                         b)  Temptation of Eve -- vss. 1b-5
                             1.  Eve detracted from what God had said
                             2.  Eve added a prohibition God had not given
                             3.  Eve lessened the consequence of disobeying
                                 God's command
                         c)  Result of the temptation of Eve -- vss. 6-7
                 2)  The accusations associated with the fall --  vss. 8-13
                 3)  The curses associated with the fall -- vss. 14-19
                     a)  For the serpent -- vss. 14-15
                         1.  All creation was cursed -- vs. 14a-d
                         2.  The serpent was cursed -- vs. 14
                             a.  Serpent was cursed more than any other animal
                             b.  Serpent was to eat dust as it crawled on its
                                 belly all the days of its life
                             c.  Satan would have enmity between him and the
                                 woman
                             d.  Satan would have enmity between his seed and
                                 the woman's seed
                             e.  Satan would be bruised on the head though he
                                 would only bruise the woman's seed on the heel
                     b)  For the woman -- vs. 16
                         1.  Her pain in childbirth would be greatly
                             multiplied -- vs. 16a-c
                         2.  Her desire would be to rule over her husband --
                             vs. 16d-e
                     c)  For the man -- vss. 17-19
                         1.  Reason for Adam's curse -- vs. 17a-d
                             a.  "Because you have listened to the voice of
                                 your wife"
                             b.  Because you "have eaten from the tree about
                                 which I commanded you, saying, 'You shall not
                                 eat from it'"
                         2.  The curse -- vss. 17e-19
                             a.  Cursed is the ground -- vss. 17e-19a
                                 1)  Toil -- vs. 17e-g
                                 2)  Thorns and thistles -- vs. 18
                                 3)  Sweat -- vs. 19a
                             b.  You shall return to the ground -- vs. 19b-e
                 4)  The actions of God because of the fall -- vss. 20-24
                     a)  God made Adam and Eve garments -- vss. 20-21
                     b)  God  sent Adam and Eve out of the garden -- vss. 22-23
                     c)  God kept Adam and Eve from the tree of life -- vs. 24
         2.  Results of the fall
             a.  Sin entered the world -- cf. Gen. 4:8
             b.  Wickedness spread throughout the world -- Gen. 6:5
             c.  Mankind became condemned -- Rom. 5:8
     B.  Sin
         Sin, which entered the world as a result of the transgression of Adam, is defined as coming short and missing the mark.  But sin can be expressed in various ways.  Below are the various words that the Scriptures use to describe sin in its various forms:

          * Sin -- coming short, missing the mark
          * Transgression -- stepping to one side, or the overstepping of those
             boundaries which God has marked off
          * Iniquity -- referring to that which is altogether wrong
          * Error -- that which disregards what is right, or to go astray
          * Wickedness -- the outworking and expression of an evil nature,
            depravity
          * Evil -- reference to that which is actually wrong, opposing God
          * Ungodliness -- lacking any worthy fear of God
          * Disobedience -- an unwillingness to be led or guided in the ways of
            truth
          * Unbelief -- failure to trust in God ("and without faith it is
            impossible to please Him [God]," Heb. 11:6)
          * Lawlessness -- that which consists in the persistent contempt of
            divine law, and a breaking through all restraint, to the end that
            self may be gratified regardless of divine admonition

          (NOTE: Point B were taken from Systematic Theology, Volume 2, pages
          267-268, Dr. Louis Sperry Chaffer).

     C.  Consequences
         1.  To Adam & Eve: Personally
             a.  Physical
                 Adam died (Gen. 5:5), though he didn't need to if he would have stayed in a state of innocence (cf. Gen. 2:17; 3:19,22-24).  Also see IV, A, 1, a, 3, above for other results.

             b.  Spiritual
                 We see in Genesis 2:17 that God warned Adam not to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, otherwise "in the day" he ate from it, he would "surely die."  We know that Adam did not immediately die physically, or even that day.  Actually, he lived another 930 years until he died physically (Gen. 5:5).  So what is this verse saying?  The Hebrew for this phrase (moth tamuth) can literally be translated as, "a death you shall die; or, dying you shall die."  The idea is that from the moment that Adam and/or Eve would eat from the tree, that they would die, or be in the state of dying (the death process.) 

                 This is true for each of us, because the moment that life is conceived, the death process starts.  Therefore, they would die both physically and spiritually, both being immediate aspects of the curse.  So, at the moment that Adam and Eve ate of the fruit, they found themselves in a state of separation from God.  Through faith and repentance they needed to rectify that separation for reconciliation to occur.  Cain -- the son of Adam and Eve -- on the other hand, after killing Abel, did not reconcile, but instead walked away from the Lord (cf. Gen. 4:16).

         2.  To mankind: Individually
             a.  Sin
                 1)  Definition: Imputation
                     Means "to place on one's account" whether as a charge or a credit. The three biblical concepts of imputation are: the sin of Adam is charged to all humanity; the sin of all humanity is charged to Christ; Christ's righteousness is credited to all who believe on Him. (From the Moody Handbook of Theology, glossary)

                     Our focus is on the imputation of Adam's sin to mankind.

                 2) Original sin
                    As a result of Adam's sin, the sin of Adam has affected and been imputed upon each generation and upon each person.  There are six theories of how Adam's sin was imputed to us, but we will look at those theories later.  First we will lay the ground work for that by looking at Romans 5:12-21.  Our focus in this passage will be strictly on the sin in the garden, not other aspects of the passage.

                    a)  Its imputation -- Rom. 5:12-14
                        Paul's arguments in verses 12-14:
                        1.  Sin entered the world through one man (Adam) -- vs. 12
                        2.  Death entered the world through his sin -- vs. 12
                        3.  Death spread to all men because all sinned -- vs. 12
                            Now, this is the key issue.  It says here that all die because all sinned.  The question is, when did all people sin?  A baby that dies in the womb or at birth -- why did that baby die?  Did that child have the opportunity to sin?  No.  So according to this verse, for a person to die they must first sin.  So, when did that baby sin?  This is where the six theories of imputation become important.

                            For now, I want you to understand that the phrase, "all sinned," is in the past tense, a completed act (aorist).  This is also the case with the two verbs that precede it.  When this verse says that "sin entered" and "death spread," they too are in the past tense.  So all three phrases are pointing to the same event -- the sin of Adam.  So what this phrase, "because all sinned," is saying is that death spread to all men because we were all involved with Adam in his sin (TBKC, page 458).  Now do you understand why there are at least six theories to explain how we who were not yet born could have sinned with Adam?  Let's continue to look at this passage before we look at the theories.


                        4.  Therefore, death is the result of original sin -- vs. 12
                        5.  Sin was not imputed from Adam until Moses when there was no law (cf. Rom. 4:15 -- vss. 13-14)
                        6.  People still died in this period because of the sin of Adam -- vs. 14

                    b)  Its condemnation -- Rom. 5:15-17
                        Paul's arguments in verses 15-17:
                        1. From one transgression the judgment of death resulted -- vs. 16
                        2.  This judgment resulted in condemnation of Adam and all mankind -- vs. 16
                        3.  As a result of Adam's sin, death reigned (ruled) through Adam -- vs. 17
                            Therefore, as a result of Adam's sin came the judgment of death, thus condemnation came and death reigned.

                    c)  Its result -- Rom. 5:18-21
                        Paul's arguments in verses 18-19:
                        1.  Through one transgression all men were condemned -- vs. 18
                        2.  Many were made sinners though Adam's disobedience --vs. 19
                        3.  Sin reigned in death -- vs. 21
                            Paul again repeats his points about the condemnation of mankind and that sin reigns in death (it rules having its desired result -- that of death).

                            Therefore, we see in this passage that sin entered the world through one man, and that we too are held accountable for the sin that Adam committed.  This is why we die, because we sinned with Adam in the garden.  Now let's look at the theories of imputation.

                 3)  Theories of imputation of sin
                     a.  Pelagian Theory
                         The Pelagian Theory was the postulation of a British Monk by the name of Pelagius who was born in A.D. 370.  He presented his theory in Rome in A.D. 409, but it was later condemned by the Council of Carthage in A.D. 418.

                         Pelagius proposed, as does the Creation Theory, that the soul of a person is an individual, immediate creation of God.  Therefore he taught that the soul was created as Adam's and Eve's were, in innocence, and able to obey God, being free of sin.  Therefore Adam's sin was not imputed to mankind, only personal sin which each person committed.  Death then is the result of the law of nature; even Adam would have died a natural death. Eternal death though is the result of man following the example of Adam.  The main thing that Adam did to negatively affect the human race was to set a bad example for us.  In this view, each individual needs to personally fall into sin since their soul was created in innocence by God.

                         This view is held by: Unitarians

                     b.  Arminian Theory
                         Jacobus Arminius was a theologian from Holland.  He was a professor.  He lived from 1560 to 1609.  Semi-Pelagianism is another name for this view. 

                         Arminius, as Pelagius, did not see mankind as guilty for the sin of Adam.  He did see man as not having original righteousness as a result of Adam's sin, though with divine help, he was capable of attaining it.  God on the other hand, for the purpose of justice, gives to each man at the beginning of consciousness a special influence of the Holy Spirit for the purpose of counteracting the effects of their inherited depravity which makes obedience to God possible, that is, if they so decided to cooperate with the Holy Spirit.  Though man has the tendency to do evil (which may be called sin), Arminius believed such tendencies would not result in guilt or punishment.  It is only when man consciously and voluntarily follows these tendencies does God impute to him as sin.  Therefore Arminius saw an effect of Adam's sin -- that all suffer for it -- but he did not see its full impact.

                         This view is held by: The Greek Church, Methodists, Weslyans, Pentecostals, Holiness groups, and other Armenian bodies

                     c.  Federal Theory
                         Cocceius (1603-1669) was the originator of this view, and it became central doctrine of Reformed Theology.  The word "federal" has the idea of a covenant between God and man.  The federal theory teaches that Adam entered a covenant of works with God, where, if Adam obeyed God, he and the entire human race would be blessed by God with eternal life.  Therefore, Adam, having made the covenant with God, became our representative, our federal head.  Having broken God's covenant, his sin is imputed to us, those he represented.

                         This view is held by:  Presbyterians, covenant theologians such as Charles Hodge, J. Oliver Buswell, Jr., and Louis Berkhof, and others who hold to this form of theology.

                     d.  Augustinian Theory (or The Realistic Theory)
                         This view which originated from Augustine (A.D. 354-430) teaches that all mankind participated with Adam in his sin as was alluded to earlier when we spoke about the Traducian theory (III, B, 2, c).  This view comes from Hebrews 7:9-10, where we see that Levi paid tithes to Melchizedek through Abraham, though Levi was not yet born (cf. Gen. 29:31,34).  The writer of Hebrews states:

                         "And, so to speak, through Abraham even Levi, who received tithes, paid tithes, for he was still in the loins of his father when Melchizedek met him."

                         We see that Levi was present in the loins -- semen -- of Abraham, and that it is attributed to him as actually having paid tithes to Melchizedek.  Therefore when Adam sinned, and we were in his loins, we too sinned with him (Rom. 5:12).  This is why each of us is guilty and why we all die, because in Adam we all sinned and death is the result of Adam's sin.

                         This view is held by:  Reformers and later Calvinists such as John Calvin, Martin Luther, William Shedd, and Augustus Strong

                     e.  The Theory of Mediate Imputation
                         This theory sees all men as depraved, both physically and morally.  Where the physical body is considered depraved from conception due to the propagation of the species, the soul is considered innocent, having been created by God, that is until it is united with the body.  It is then seen as corrupt when the two are united.  It is believed that as a result of this inherited depravity that God imputes that depravity to man as a consequence and not as a penalty of Adam's sin (mediate or through Adam).  Therefore it is viewed that the imputation of sin is the result of inherited depravity, not that depravity is the result of the imputation of sin because we sinned with Adam.  Henry Thiessen stated in his book, Lectures in Systematic Theology, "Depravity is our fault, not mere misfortune.  Depravity is the penal consequence [imposed punishment] of sin" (page 188).

                     f.  The Corporate Personality Theory
                         This view understands Romans 5:12 from the perspective that one person can represent a group of people.  Therefore, that one individual can act on behalf of the group in which the group can either be blessed or cursed.  One example of this was when Achan sinned, and as a result he and his family were put to death (Josh. 7:24-26).  Also, as a result of King David's sin of numbering the nation of Israel, the nation suffered (2 Sam. 24:10-14).  This theory then sees that as a result of the corporate personality (identity) of mankind, Adam acted, and as a result we reaped the consequences of his sin.

                 4)  Biblical arguments for the imputation of original sin (Romans 5:12-21)
                     a)  Verses 12-14:
                         * Sin entered the world through one man -- Adam
                         * Death entered the world through, or as a result of, sin
                         * Death spread to all men because "all" sinned (aorist past tense, completed action; this verse does not say because all sin (continued, present tense))
                         * From Adam until Moses people still sinned, though their sin was not imputed to them because there was no law which they had broken (like Adam had done, breaking a specific commandment of God)
                         * From Adam until Moses people still died even though their sin was not imputed to them

                         QUESTIONS: Why then did the people from the time of Adam until the time of Moses die?  When did they sin?  What law did they break?  When was sin imputed to them that resulted in their death?  Why then do we die?
                         CONCLUSION:  Since the people from Adam to Moses died, not having broken a law as Adam did, they had to have sinned at some point in time because they died?  Romans 5:12 states, "...and so death spread to all men, because all sinned."  Even today as throughout time, babies die before having the ability to sin.  So why do they die?  Because they had sinned, thus original sin has been imputed to them.  As with the people from Adam to Moses, the sin which was imputed to them was the original sin of Adam (cf. Gen. 3).  This sin was imputed to all men, because in some way all men participated in that sin.  How did we sin with Adam?  The Scriptures do not tell us.  We were however seminally present in Adam's loins when he sinned (cf. Hebrews 7:9-10), and as a result we participated with Adam in his original sin.  Therefore we die.

                     b)  Verses 15-21 (collaborating information):
                         One of the keys to understanding this passage is understanding the parallelisms between Christ and Adam.  Therefore, however verses 12-14 are understood (if we sinned with Adam in his loins or not), the conclusion must correlate with Paul's arguments given in verses 15-21 -- the proof given to substantiate verses 12-14.

                         COMPARISON OF ADAM AND CHRIST

                         vs. 15  ADAM: Transgression: many died
                                 CHRIST: Grace & gift (righteousness, cf. vs. 17): abound to many (cf. vs. 19, those who have already died)

                         vs. 16  ADAM: Transgression: judgment and condemnation
                                 CHRIST: Free gift: arose from many transgressions resulting in justification

                         vs. 17  ADAM: Transgression: death reigned through Adam
                                 CHRIST: Grace & gift: believers will reign in life through Christ
  
                         vs. 18  ADAM: Transgression: resulted in condemnation to all men
                                 CHRIST: One act of righteousness resulted in justification of life to all men (an offer)

                         vs. 19  ADAM: Disobedience: many were made sinners
                                 CHRIST: Obedience: many were made righteous

                         vs. 20  ADAM: Law: transgressions increased
                                 CHRIST: Sin increased: grace abounded all the more

                         vs. 21  ADAM: Death: sin reigned through it
                                 CHRIST: Righteousness: grace reigns through it to bring eternal life

                     CONCLUSION: In these verses we see that as a result of Adam's sin in the garden that many died.  (Many is a reference to those who have already died, not looking to the future.)  They received judgment, condemnation, and death.  They were made sinners.  On the other hand, the many in Christ received the grace and imputed righteousness of Christ which resulted in their being made righteous, receiving justification and eternal life in Christ.

                                 Therefore, where mankind was imputed with the original sin of Adam and its associated consequences, in Christ, those who by faith receive God's grace and gift of righteousness are imputed with the righteousness of Christ and its associated benefits.  Consequently, if man was imputed with the sin of Adam, it is only through the imputation of Christ's righteousness that he can have the impact of Adam's sin (judgment and condemnation) canceled.

             b.  Other consequences
                 1)  Sin nature and total depravity of man
                     a) Sin nature
                        "Man's want of original righteousness and of holy affections toward God, and the corruption of his moral nature and his bias toward evil is called depravity.  Its existence is witnessed to by both Scripture and human experience. The teaching of Scripture that all men must be born again shows the universality of its existence."

                        (From Lectures in Systematic Theology, Henry C. Thiessen, Eerdmans Publishing House, 1983, page 191)

                     b)  Total depravity (cf. Gen. 8:21; Rom. 3:9-18)
                         Because of Adam's sin, the human race fell, man inherited a sin nature, and became alienated from God.  Genesis chapter 3 details the fall of man from the serpent approaching Eve to the driving of Adam and Eve from the garden and placing the cherubim with the flaming sword to guard the way to the tree of life.  Followed by this in the very next chapter, we see the sin of murder with Cain killing Abel (Gen. 4), culminating in chapter 6 with this statement by God of His view of man: "Then the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually" (Gen. 6:5).  Moses had ended Genesis Chapter 1 with the statement, "And God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good" (Gen. 1:31a).  We go from this declaration before the fall to the statement of man's wickedness after the fall.  All of this because of Adam's sin. Romans 5:18a states, "So then as through one transgression there resulted condemnation to all men."  And the end result of the condemnation is that "...in Adam all die" (1 Cor. 15:22a). These statements are a summation of the fall because through the one sin, all men were condemned, and we fell from a state of righteousness to a state of unrighteousness.  Another result of Adam's sin is that we inherited a sinful nature . David, after having committed adultery with Bathsheba, exclaimed in Psalm 51:5, "Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin my mother conceived me."  David hit right at the core of the issue, we are conceived and brought forth into this world in sin. We need not be taught how to do evil, but rather are born experts. Ephesians 2:3 says, "Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts of our flesh, indulging the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest."  Paul says that we "were by nature children of wrath," which points to our innermost being.  This goes against the secular humanists of our day who say that by nature we are basically good.  For them to say this makes one wonder if they had ever been exposed to children.  A third consequence of Adam's sin is that we became totally alienated from God.  In Colossians 1:19-20, Paul is talking about God reconciling us through Christ to Himself. Then in the next verse (vs. 21), Paul recounts the Colossians' former relationship with God before they were believers: "And although you were formerly alienated and hostile in mind, engaged in evil deeds."  Paul recalls that they were alienated or separated from God.  Why were they alienated?  Because of their sin, because as Paul says, they were "hostile in mind" and "engaged in evil deeds."  So as a result of Adam's sin and our begetting of a sin nature, we became alienated toward God, needing to be reconciled.

                         Man is totally depraved and of himself utterly unable to remedy his lost condition.  Of unbelievers, Isaiah the prophet says, "For all of us have become like one who is unclean, and all our deeds are like a filthy garment; and all of us wither like a leaf, and our iniquities, like the wind, take us away" (Is. 64:6). Before God, the unbeliever is viewed in this way: unclean, their deeds being of no value because they were done out of selfish motives, and then dying in sin, being blown away from before Him.  Unregenerate man has nothing in him that can please God.  Not even the good that men see in other men has value before God since it is done out of a selfish, evil heart. Paul said of unregenerate man, 'as it is written, 'there is none righteous, not even one...all have turned aside, together they have become useless; there is none who does good, there is not even one'" (Rom. 3:10,12).  Paul told the Ephesians, "and you were dead in your trespasses and sins, in which you formerly walked according to the course of this world" (Eph. 2:1-2b).  They were dead

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