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Luther's Small Catechism

Written by: Luther, Martin    Posted on: 07/31/2004

Category: Theology


Luther's Small Catechism

The ICHTHUS Translation
prepared by Pastor Robin D. Fish, Sr.

Preface of Dr. Martin Luther
Selected portions - edited.

The deplorable, miserable condition which I discovered lately when I, too, was a visitor (visiting churches in his area to inquire about the spiritual health of the people and the pastors, and the pastors readiness to be ministers of the newly rediscovered Gospel of the Reformation), has compelled and encouraged me to prepare and publish this Catechism, or manual of Christian doctrine, in this small, plain, simple form. Mercy! Good God! What abundant misery I beheld! The common people, especially in the small towns, have no knowledge whatsoever of Christian doctrine, and, alas! many pastors are altogether incapable and utterly incompetent to teach [it is so bad, that one is ashamed to have to admit it]. Nevertheless, everyone maintains that they are Christians; they have been baptized and they even receive the holy Sacrament. Yet they do not understand and cannot even recite either the Lord's Prayer, or the Creed, or the Ten Commandments; they live like mindless animals and unthinking pigs; and yet, now that the Gospel has come, the have managed quite nicely to learn to abuse all Christian liberty like experts. . . .

When one begins to teach the Catechism, in the first place, let the preacher above all be careful to avoid using many kinds of or various texts and versions of the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer, the Creed, the Sacraments, etc., but choose one version to which he adheres, and which he inculcates all the time, year after year. For young and uneducated people must be taught by uniform, consistent texts and forms, otherwise they easily become confused when the teacher today teaches them this version, and in a year some other version, as if he imagined he was making improvements, and thus all the past effort and labor which has been expended in teaching is lost.

With the young people stick to one fixed, consistent form and manner, and teach them, first of all, the Ten Commandments, the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, etc., according to the text, word for word, so that they, too, can repeat it in the same manner after you and commit it to memory.

But those who are unwilling to learn it should be told that in doing so they deny Christ and are no Christians, nor should they be admitted to the Sacrament under any circumstance, or accepted as sponsors at baptism, nor be permitted to exercise any part of Christian liberty, but should simply be turned back to the Pope and his officials, yes, even to the devil himself. Moreover, their parents and employers should refuse them food and drink, and notify them that the prince will drive such rude people from the country, etc.

For although we cannot and should not force anyone to believe, yet we should insist and encourage the people that to learn what is right and wrong with those among whom they dwell and wish to make their living.

In the second place, after they have well learned the text, then teach them the sense also, so that they know what it means, and again choose the form of these tables, or some other brief uniform version, whichever you like, and adhere to it, and do not change a single syllable, as was just said regarding the text. And take your time to do it. For it is not necessary that you take up all the parts at once, but one after the other. After they understand the First Commandment well, then take up the Second, and so on, otherwise they will be overwhelmed, so as not to be able to retain any well.

[The work of a pastor] now involves much more trouble and labor, dangers and trials, and, in addition thereto, little reward and gratitude in the world. But Christ Himself will be our reward if we labor faithfully. To this end may the Father of all grace help us, to whom be praise and thanks forever through Christ our Lord! Amen.

The Ten Commandments
As the head of the family should teach them in a simple way to his household

The First Commandment
Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.
What does this mean? We should fear, love, and trust in God above all things.

The Second Commandment
Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord, thy God, in vain.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may not curse, swear, use witchcraft, lie, or deceive by His name, but call upon it in every trouble, pray, praise, and give thanks.

The Third Commandment
Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. Thou shalt sanctify the holy day.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may not despise preaching and His Word, but hold it sacred and gladly hear and learn it.

The Fourth Commandment
Thou shalt honor thy father and thy mother that it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may not despise our parents and masters, nor provoke them to anger, but give them honor, serve and obey them, and hold them in love and esteem.

The Fifth Commandment
Thou shalt not kill.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may not hurt nor harm our neighbor in his body, but help and befriend him in every bodily need.

The Sixth Commandment
Thou shalt not commit adultery.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may lead a chaste and decent life in word and deed, and each love and honor his spouse.

The Seventh Commandment
Thou shalt not steal.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may not take our neighbor's money nor goods, nor get them by false ware or dealing, but help him to improve and protect his property and business.

The Eighth Commandment
Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may not deceitfully belie, betray, slander, nor defame our neighbor, but defend him, speak well of him, and put the best construction on everything.

The Ninth Commandment
Thou shalt not covet Thy neighbor's house.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may not craftily seek to get our neighbor's inheritance or house, nor obtain it by a show of right, but help and be of service to him in keeping it.

The Tenth Commandment
Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his cattle, nor anything that is thy neighbor's.
What does this mean? We should fear and love God that we may not estrange, force, or entice away from our neighbor his wife, servants, or cattle, but urge them to stay and diligently do their duty.

The Close of the Commandments
What does God say of all these commandments?
He says the following: "I, the Lord, your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children, on the third and fourth generations of those who hate me, but showing lovingkindness to thousands who love me and keep My Commandments."

What does this mean? God threatens to punish all who disobey these Commandments. Therefore we should fear His wrath and do nothing contrary to them. But He promises His grace and every good thing to everyone who keep these Commandments. Therefore we should love Him and trust in Him and willingly do what He has commanded.

The Apostles' Creed
As the head of the family should teach it in a simple way to his household

The First Article
I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth.

What does this mean? I believe that God has created me and all creatures; that He has given me my body, soul, eyes, ears, and all my members, my reason and all my senses, and still preserves them; in addition [He has given me] clothing and shoes, food and drink, house and home, spouse and children, fields, cattle, and all my possessions; that He richly and daily provides me with all that I need to support this body and life; that He protects me against all danger, and guards and preserves me from every sort of evil; and all this out of pure, fatherly, divine goodness and mercy, without any fitness or worthiness on my part; for all of this I owe it to Him to thank and praise Him, to serve and obey Him. This is most certainly true.

The Second Article
And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; He descended into hell; the third day He rose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

What does this mean? I believe that Jesus Christ, true God, begotten of the Father from eternity, and also true man, born of the Virgin Mary, is my Lord. He has redeemed me, a lost and condemned human being, purchased and won me from all sins, from death, and from the power of Satan; not with gold or silver but with His holy precious blood and with His innocent suffering and death, in order that I may be His own, and live under Him in his kingdom, and serve Him in everlasting righteousness, innocence and blessedness, just as He Himself is risen from the dead, and lives and reigns for eternity. This is most certainly true.

The Third Article
I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy Christian Church, the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and the life everlasting. Amen

What does this mean? I believe that I cannot by my own reason or strength believe in Jesus Christ, my Lord, or come to Him; but the Holy Ghost has called me by the Gospel, enlightened me with His gifts, sanctified, and kept me in the true faith; just as He calls, gathers, enlightens and sanctifies the whole Christian Church on earth, and keeps it in Jesus Christ through the one true faith; in which Christian Church He daily and richly forgives all sins to me and all believers, and will on the Last Day raise up me and all the dead, and give eternal life to me and all believers in Christ. This is most certainly true.

The Lord's Prayer
As the head of the family should teach it in a simple way to his household

Our Father who art in heaven. Hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For Thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever and ever. Amen.


The Introduction
Our Father who art in heaven.

What does this mean? By these words God would tenderly invite us to believe that He is our true Father, and that we are His true children, so that we may ask Him, with all boldness and confidence, as dear children ask their dear father.


The First Petition
Hallowed be Thy name.

What does this mean? God's name is indeed holy of itself; but we pray in this petition that it may become holy among us also.

How is this done? When the Word of God is taught in its truth and purity, and we live a holy life, as the children of God, according to it. Help us in this, dear Father in heaven. But anyone that teaches or lives otherwise than the Word of God teaches, profanes the name of God among us. Protect us from this, dear Heavenly Father.

The Second Petition
Thy kingdom come.

What does this mean? The kingdom of God comes even without our prayer, of itself; but we pray in this petition that it may come unto us also.

How is this done? When our heavenly Father gives us His Holy Spirit, so that by His grace we believe His holy Word and lead a godly life, here in time and there in eternity.

The Third Petition
Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.

What does this mean? The good and gracious will of God is also done without our prayer; but we pray in this petition that it also may be done among us.

How is this done? When God breaks and hinders every evil counsel and will which would not let us hallow the name of God nor let His kingdom come, such as the will of the devil, the world, and our flesh; but strengthens us and keeps us steadfast in His Word and faith unto our end. This is His gracious and good will.

The Fourth Petition
Give us this day our daily bread.

What does this mean? God gives daily bread even without our prayer, even to all the wicked; but we pray in this petition that He would lead us to know it, and to receive our daily bread with thanksgiving.

What is meant by daily bread? Everything which belongs to the needs and support of the body, such as food and drink, clothing and shoes, house and home, land and cattle, money and possessions, a pious spouse, pious children, pious servants, pious and faithful rulers, good government, beneficial weather, peace, health, discipline, honor, good friends, faithful neighbors, and the like.

The Fifth Petition
And forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us.

What does this mean? We pray in this petition that our Father in heaven would not look upon our sins, nor deny our petitions because of them; for we are worthy of none of the things for which we pray, nor have we deserved them; but [we pray] that he would grant all of them to us by grace; for we are gross sinners every day and genuinely deserve nothing but punishment. So will we also forgive from the heart, and also freely do good to those who sin against us.

The Sixth Petition
And lead us not into temptation.

What does this mean? God, in fact, tempts no one; but we pray in this petition that God would guard and keep us, so that the devil, the world, and our flesh may not deceive us nor seduce us into false belief, despair, and other great shame and vice; and even though we be assaulted by them, that still we may ultimately overcome and gain the victory.

The Seventh Petition
But deliver us from evil.

What does this mean? We pray in this petition, as in summary, that our Father in heaven would deliver us from every sort of evil of body and soul, of property and honor, and at the end, when our last hour shall come, grant us a blessed end and graciously take us from this place of sorrows to Himself in heaven.

The Conclusion
For Thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever and ever. Amen.

What is meant by the word "Amen"? That I should be certain that these petitions are acceptable to our Father in heaven, and are heard; for He Himself has commanded us to pray in this way and has promised to hear us. Amen, Amen, that is, Yes, certainly, Thus it shall be.

The Sacrament of Holy Baptism
As the head of the family should teach it in a simple way to his household

I. What is Baptism?
Baptism is not just plain water, but it is the water used by the command of God and connected with the Word of God.

Which is that Word of God?

Christ, our Lord, says in the last chapter of Matthew: "Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit."

II. What does Baptism give or accomplish?
It works the forgiveness of sins, sets free from death and the devil, and gives eternal salvation to all and to each who believe this as the words and promises of God proclaim.

Which are these words and promises of God?

Christ, our Lord, says in the last chapter of Mark: "He who has believed and has been baptized shall be saved; but he who has disbelieved shall be condemned."

III. How can water do such great things?
Actually, it is not the water that does them, but the Word of God which is in and with the water, and faith, which trusts this Word of God in the water. For without the Word of God the water is plain water and is not Baptism. But with the Word of God it is a Baptism, that is, a gracious water of life and a washing of new birth through the Holy Ghost as St. Paul says in Titus, chapter three:

"He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit, whom He poured out on us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior, that being justified by His grace we might be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life. This is a trustworthy statement."

IV. What does this Baptizing with water mean?
It means, that the old Adam in us should, by daily contrition and repentance, be drown and die with all sins and evil desires and, on the other hand, a new man emerge and take his stand who shall live in righteousness and purity before God forever.

Where is this written?

St. Paul writes in Romans, chapter six: "We have been buried with Him through baptism into death, in order that as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life."

The Office of the Keys
As the head of the family should teach it in a simple way to his household

(The Office of the Keys was not originally a part of the Small Catechism, written by Martin Luther. It was included, however, during the life of Martin Luther, and in this place, and is useful and beneficial for instruction.)

What is the Office of the Keys?
It is the unique power which Christ has given to His Church on earth to forgive the sins of repentant sinners, but to retain the sins of the impenitent as long as they do not repent.

Where is this written?

The Apostle John writes in his Gospel, chapter twenty:
F"[The Lord Jesus] breathed on [His disciples] and said to them, `Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, their sins have been forgiven them; if you retain the sins of any, they have been retained.'"

What do you believe according to these words?
I believe that when the called ministers of Christ deal with us by His divine command, especially when they exclude publicly known and unrepentant sinners from the Christian congregation, and, also, when they forgive those who repent of their sins and desire to reform, this is as valid and certain, even in heaven, as if Christ, our dear Lord, was dealing with us Himself.

Confession
As the head of the family should teach it in a simple way to his household

What is Confession?
Confession includes two parts. One is that we confess our sins; the other, that we receive absolution, or forgiveness, from the one to whom we confess as from God Himself, and do not doubt in the least, but firmly believe, that by this absolution our sins are forgiven before God in heaven.

What sins should we confess?
To God we should confess the guilt of all of our sins, even those of which we are not aware, as we do in the Lord's Prayer; but when we confess to another person we should confess those sins alone which we know and feel in our hearts.

Which are these?
Here consider your situation in life according to the Ten Commandments, whether you are a father, mother, son, daughter, employer, supervisor, or employee; whether you have been disobedient, unfaithful, or neglected your job; whether you have troubled any person by word or deed; whether you have stolen, abused or wasted anything, or done any other damage.

The Sacrament of the Altar
As the head of the family should teach it in a simple way to his household P

What is the Sacrament of the Altar?
It is the true body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, under the bread and wine, for us Christians to eat and to drink, instituted by Christ Himself.

Where is this written?

Thus write the Holy Evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and St. Paul:
"Our Lord Jesus Christ, the same night in which He was betrayed, took bread: and when He had given thanks, He broke it, and gave it to His disciples, saying, Take this, eat! This is My body, which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of Me."

"In the same way, He also took the cup, after he had eaten, gave thanks and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you! This cup is the new testament in My blood, which is shed for you for the forgiveness of sins. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me."

What is the benefit of this eating and drinking?
That is indicated for us in these words: "Given and shed for you, for the forgiveness of sins." That is to say, that in the Sacrament the forgiveness of sins, life and salvation are given to us through these words. For where there is forgiveness of sins, there is also life and salvation.

How can physical eating and drinking do such great things?
Actually, eating and drinking doesn't do them, but the words which stand here: "Given and shed for you, for the forgiveness of sins". These words are, next to the bodily eating and drinking, the most important thing in the Sacrament; and anyone who believes these words has what they say and proclaim, that is, the forgiveness of sins.

Then, who receives this Sacrament worthily?
Fasting and bodily preparation are, in fact, a fine external discipline; but one is truly worthy and appropriately prepared who has faith in these words: "Given and shed for you for the forgiveness of sins." But anyone who does not believe these words, or doubts, is unworthy and unprepared; for the words, "For you," requires each heart to believe.

APPENDIX

How the Head of the Family Should Teach His Household to Bless Themselves in the Morning and in the Evening

Luther's Morning Prayer:

In the morning, when you rise, bless yourself by making the sign of the cross and say;

In the name of the Father, and of the Son (+), and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

Then say the Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer. You may also say this little prayer, if you choose:

I thank You, my Heavenly Father, through Jesus Christ, Your dear Son, that You have protected me this night from all harm and danger; and I ask You to keep me this day also from sin and all evil, that all my actions and my whole life may please You. For into Your hands I commend myself, my body and soul and all things. Let Your holy angel be with me, that the Evil Foe may have no power over me. Amen.

Then go on with the duties of your day with joy, singing a hymn, or reciting the Ten Commandments, or whatever your faith may suggest.

Luther's Evening Prayer:

In the evening, as you are going to bed, bless yourself by making the sign of the cross and say:

In the name of the Father, and of the Son (+), and of the Holy Spirit. Amen.

Then say the Apostles' Creed and the Lord's Prayer. You may also say this little prayer, if you choose:

I thank You, my Heavenly Father, through Jesus Christ, Your dear Son, that You have graciously kept me today, and I ask You to forgive all my sins, where I have done wrong, and graciously keep me this night. For into Your hands I commend myself, my body and soul and all things. Let Your holy angel be with me, that the Evil Foe may have no power over me. Amen.

Then go to sleep quickly and peacefully.

How the Head of the Family Should Teach His Household to Ask a Blessing and Return Thanks at Mealtime The children, with the family, shall go to the table, fold their hands and reverently say:

The eyes of all look to Thee, and Thou dost give them their food in due time. Thou dost open Thy hand, and dost satisfy the desire of every living thing.

Then say the Lord's Prayer, and the prayer here following:

Lord God, Heavenly Father, bless us and these, Thy gifts, which we take from Your bountiful goodness, through Christ our Lord. Amen.

[Or:

Then they may say the modern, common table prayer:

Come, Lord Jesus, be our guest; and let these, Thy gifts to us, be blessed. Amen.]

Returning Thanks
In the same way, after the meal they shall fold their hands and reverently say:

O give thanks unto the Lord, for He is good; for His mercy endures forever. He gives food to all creatures; He gives food to the cattle, and to the young birds which cry. He does not take pleasure in the strength of the horse or in the endurance of a man. The Lord takes pleasure in those who fear Him, in everyone that hopes in His mercy.

Then say the Lord's Prayer and the prayer here following:

We thank You, Lord God, our Father, through Jesus Christ, our Lord, for all of the blessings we receive from You, who lives and reigns forever and ever. Amen.

Table of Duties
On certain passages of Scripture for various holy offices and conditions according to which those in such offices and conditions are to be instructed and encouraged as to how they may perform their office and duty to the glory of God

To Bishops, Pastors, and Preachers:
An overseer [bishop], then, must be above reproach, the husband of one wife, temperate, prudent, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not addicted to wine or pugnacious, but gentle, uncontentious, free from the love of money. He must be one who manages his own household well, keeping his children under control with all dignity and not a new convert, holding fast the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, that he may be able both to exhort in sound doctrine and to refute those who contradict. 1 Timothy 3:2,3,4,6; Titus 1:9

What Hearers Owe to their Pastors:
Eat and drink what they give you; for the laborer is worthy of his wages. Luke 10:7

So also the Lord directed those who proclaim the gospel to get their living from the gospel. 1 Corinthians 9:14

And let the one who is taught the word share all good things with him who teaches. Do not be deceived, God is not mocked; for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap. Galatians 6:6-7

Let the elders who rule well be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who work hard at preaching and teaching. For the Scripture says, "YOU SHALL NOT MUZZLE THE OX WHILE HE IS THRESHING," and "The laborer is worthy of his wages." 1 Timothy 5:17-18

But we request of you, brethren, that you appreciate those who diligently labor among you, and have charge over you in the Lord and give you instruction, and that you esteem them very highly in love because of their work. Live in peace with one another. 1 Thessalonians 5:12-13

Obey your leaders, and submit to them; for they keep watch over your souls, as those who will give an account. Let them do this with joy and not with grief, for this would be unprofitable for you. Hebrews 13:17

Of Civil Government:
Let every person be in subjection to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those which exist are established by God. Therefore he who resists authority has opposed the ordinance of God; and they who have opposed will receive condemnation upon themselves. For rulers are not a cause of fear for good behavior, but for evil. Do you want to have no fear of authority? Do what is good, and you will have praise from the same; for it is a minister of God to you for good. But if you do what is evil, be afraid; for it does not bear the sword for nothing; for it is a minister of God, an avenger who brings wrath upon the one who practices evil. Romans 13:1-4.

Of Subjects ["citizens"]:
They said to Him, "Caesar's." Then He said to them, "Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's; and to God the things that are God's." Matthew 22:21

Wherefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of wrath, but also for conscience' sake. For because of this you also pay taxes, for rulers are servants of God, devoting themselves to this very thing. Render to all what is due them: tax to whom tax is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor. Romans 13:5-7

First of all, then, I urge that entreaties and prayers, petitions and thanksgivings, be made on behalf of all men, for kings and all who are in authority, in order that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and dignity. This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior. 1 Timothy 2:1-3

Remind them to be subject to rulers, to authorities, to be obedient, to be ready for every good deed. Titus 3:1

Submit yourselves for the Lord's sake to every human institution, whether to a king as the one in authority, or to governors as sent by him for the punishment of evildoers and the praise of those who do right. 1 Peter 2:13-14

To Husbands:
You husbands likewise, live with your wives in an understanding way, as with a weaker vessel, since she is a woman; and grant her honor as a fellow heir of the grace of life, so that your prayers may not be hindered. 1 Peter 3:7

Husbands, love your wives, and do not be embittered against them. Colossians 3:19

To Wives:
Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. Ephesians 5:22

Thus Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord, and you have become her children if you do what is right without being frightened by any fear. 1 Peter 3:6

To Parents:
And, fathers, do not provoke your children to anger; but bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord. Ephesians 6:4

To Children:
Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. HONOR YOUR FATHER AND MOTHER (which is the first commandment with a promise), THAT IT MAY BE WELL WITH YOU, AND THAT YOU MAY LIVE LONG ON THE EARTH. Ephesians 6:1-3

To Servants:
Slaves, be obedient to those who are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in the sincerity of your heart, as to Christ; not by way of eyeservice, as men-pleasers, but as slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart. With good will render service, as to the Lord, and not to men, knowing that whatever good thing each one does, this he will receive back from the Lord, whether slave or free. Ephesians 6:5-8

To Employers:
And, masters, do the same things to them, and give up threatening, knowing that both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no partiality with Him. Ephesians 6:9

To the Young In General:
You younger men, likewise, be subject to your elders; and all of you, clothe yourselves with humility toward one another, for God is opposed to the proud, but gives grace to the humble. Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty hand of God, that He may exalt you at the proper time. 1 Peter 5:5-6

To Widows:
Now she who is a widow indeed, and who has been left alone has fixed her hope on God, and continues in entreaties and prayers night and day. But she who gives herself to wanton pleasure is dead even while she lives. 1 Timothy 5:5-6

To All In Common:
If there is any commandment, it is summed up in this saying, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." Romans 13:9 Prayers [are to] be made on behalf of all men. 1 Timothy 2:1

Let each his lesson learn with care, and all the household well shall fare.

>Christian Questions and Answers

1. Do you believe that you are a sinner?

Yes. I believe it; I am a sinner.

2. How do you know this?

From the Ten Commandments; I have not kept them.

3. Are you also sorry for your sins?

Yes. I am sorry that I have sinned against God.

4. What have you deserved from God because of your sins?

His wrath and displeasure, temporal death and eter

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