CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE HEBREWS 5:12
Written by: Unknown Posted on: 05/06/2003
Category: Bible Studies
For Then for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be
the first principles of the
oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat.
THESE words are a complaint, which the apostle makes against the Christian Hebrews, for
their want of such proficiency in the knowledge of the doctrines and mysteries of religion, as
might have been expected of them. The apostle complains, that they had not made that progress
in their acquaintance with the things taught in the oracles of God, which they ought to have
made. And he means to reprove them, not merely for their deficiency in spiritual and
experimental knowledge of divine things, but for their deficiency in a doctrinal acquaintance
with the principles of religion, and the truths of Christ Ian divinity; as is evident by the manner in
which the apostle introduces this reproof. The occasion of his introducing it is this: In the next
text but one preceding. he mentions Christ as being " Called of God an high priest after the order
of Melchizedek." In the Old Testament, the oracles of God, Melchizedek was held forth as an
eminent type of Christ; and the account we there have of him contains many gospel mysteries.
These mysteries the apostle was willing to point out to the Christian Hebrews; but he
apprehended, that through their weakness in knowledge, they would not understand him; and
therefore breaks off for the present from saying any thing about Melchizedek, thus (ver. 11.) "Of
whom we have many things to say, and hard to be uttered; seeing ye are all dull of hearing;" i.e.
there are many things concerning Melchizedek which contain wonderful gospel-mysteries, and
which I would take notice of to you, were it not that I am afraid, that through your dulness,and
backwardness in understanding these things, you would only be puzzled and confounded by my
discourse, and so receive no benefit; and that it would be too hard for you, as meat that is too
Then come in the words of the text: " For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have
need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become
such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat." As much as to say, Indeed it might have been
expected of you, that you should have known enough of the Holy Scriptures, to be able to
understand and digest such mysteries: but it is not so with you. The apostle speaks of their
proficiency in such knowledge as is conveyed by human teaching: as appears by that expression,
" When for the time ye ought to be teachers;" which includes not only a practical and
experimental, but also a doctrinal, knowledge of the truths and mysteries of religion.
Again, the apostle speaks of such knowledge, whereby Christians are enabled to understand
those things in divinity which are more abstruse and difficult to be understood, and which require
great skill in things of this nature. This is more fully expressed in the two next verses: " For
every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness; for he is a babe. But strong
meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who, by reason of use, have their senses
exercised to discern both good and evil." It is such knowledge, that proficiency in it shall carry
persons beyond the first principles of religion. As here; " Ye have need that one teach you again
which be the first principles of the oracles of God." Therefore the apostle, in the beginning of the
next chapter, advises them " to leave the first principles of the doctrine of Christ, and to go on
We may observe that the fault of this defect appears, in that they had not made proficiency
according to their time.-For the time, they ought to have been teachers. As they were Christians,
their business was to learn and gain Christian knowledge. They were scholars in the school of
Christ; and if they had improved their time in learning, as they ought to have done, they might,
by the time when the apostle wrote, have been fit to be teachers in this school. To whatever
business any one is devoted, it may be expected that his perfection in it shall be answerable to the
time he has had to learn and perfect himself.-Christians should not always remain babes, but
should grow in Christian knowledge; and leaving the food of babes, they should learn to digest
Every Christian should make a business of endeavoring to grow in knowledge in divinity.-This is
indeed esteemed the business of divines and ministers: it is commonly thought to be their work,
by the study of the Scriptures, and other instructive books, to gain knowledge; and most seem to
think that it may be left to them, as what belongeth not to others. But if the apostle had
entertained this notion, he would never have blamed the Christian Hebrews for not having
acquired knowledge enough to be teachers. Or if he had thought, that this concerned Christians in
general only as a thing by the by, and that their time should not in a considerable measure be
taken up with this business; he never would have so much blamed them, that their proficiency in
knowledge had not been answerable to the time which they had had to learn.
In handling this subject, I shall show-what is intended by divinity-what kind of knowledge in
divinity is intended-why knowledge in divinity is necessary. And why all Christians should make
a business of endeavouring to grow in this knowledge.
What is intended by divinity, as the object of Christian knowledge
VARIOUS definitions have been given of this subject by those who have treated on it. I shall
not now stand to inquire which, according to the rules of art, is the most accurate definition; but
shall so define or describe it, as I think has the greatest tendency to convey a proper notion of
it.-It is that science or doctrine which comprehends all those truths and rules which concern the
great business of religion.
There are various kinds of arts and sciences taught and learned in the schools, which are
conversant about various objects; about the works of nature in general, as philosophy; or the
visible heavens, as astronomy; or the sea, as navigation; or the earth, as geography; or the body
of man, as physic and anatomy; or the soul of man. with regard to its natural powers and
qualities, as logic and pneumatology; or about human government, as politics and jurisprudence.
But one science, or kind of knowledge and doctrine, is above all the rest; as it treats concerning
God and the great business of religion. Divinity is not learned, as other sciences, merely by the
improvement of man's natural reason, but is taught by God himself in a book full of instruction,
which he hath given us for that end. This is the rule which God hath given to the world to be
their guide in searching after this kind of knowledge, and is a summary of all things of this nature
needful for us to know. Upon this account divinity is rather called a doctrine, than an art or
Indeed there is what is called natural religion. There are many truths concerning God, and our
duty to him, which are evident by the light of nature. But Christian divinity, properly so called, is
not evident by the light of nature; it depends on revelation. Such are our circumstances now in
our fallen state that nothing which it is needful for us to know concerning God is manifest by the
light of nature, in the manner in which it is necessary for us to know it. For the knowledge of no
truth in divinity is of significance to us, any otherwise than as it some way or other belongs to the
gospel-scheme, or as it relates to a Mediator. But the light of nature teaches us no truth in this
matter. Therefore it cannot be said, that we come to the knowledge of any part of Christian truth
by the light of nature. It is only the word of God, contained in the Old and New Testament,
which teaches us Christian divinity.
This comprehends all that is taught in the Scriptures, and so all that we need know, or is to be
known, concerning God and Jesus Christ, concerning our duty to God, and our happiness in God.
Divinity is commonly defined, the doctrine of living to God; and by some who seem to be more
accurate, the doctrine of living to God by Christ. It comprehends all Christian doctrines as they
are in Jesus, and all Christian rules directing us in living to God by Christ. There is no one
doctrine, no promise, no rule, but what some way or other relates to the Christian and divine life,
or our living to God by Christ. They all relate to this, in two respects, viz. as they tend to
our living to God here in this world, in a life of faith and holiness, and also as they tend to bring
us to a life of perfect holiness and happiness, in the full enjoyment of God hereafter.
What kind of knowledge in divinity, is intended in the doctrine
THERE are two kinds of knowledge of divine truth, viz. speculative and practical, or in other
terms, natural and spiritual. The former remains only in the head. No other faculty but the
understanding is concerned in it. It consists in having a natural or rational knowledge of the
things of religion, or such a knowledge as is to be obtained by the natural exercise of our own
faculties, without any special illumination of the Spirit of God. The latter rests not entirely in the
head, or in the speculative ideas of things; but the heart is concerned in it: it principally consists
in the sense of the heart. The mere intellect, without the will or the inclination, is not the seat of
it. And it may not only be called seeing, but feeling or tasting. Thus there is a difference between
having a right speculative notion of the doctrines contained in the word of God, and having a due
sense of them in the heart. In the former consists the speculative or natural knowledge, in the
latter consists the spiritual or practical knowledge of them.
Neither of these is intended in the doctrine exclusively of the other: but it is intended that we
should seek the former in order to the latter. The latter, or the spiritual and practical, is of the
greatest importance; for a speculative without a spiritual knowledge, is to no purpose, but to
make our condemnation the greater. Yet a speculative knowledge is also of infinite importance in
this respect, that without it we can have no spiritual or practical knowledge.
I have already shown, that the apostle speaks not only of a spiritual knowledge, but of such as
can be acquired, and communicated from one to another. Yet it is not to be thought, that he
means this exclusively of the other. But he would have the Christian Hebrews seek the one, in
order to the other. Therefore
the former is first and most directly intended; it is intended that Christians should, by reading and
other proper means, seek a good rational knowledge of the things of divinity: while the latter is
more indirectly intended, since it is to be sought by the other. But I proceed to
The usefulness and necessity of the knowledge of divine truths
THERE is no other way by which any means of grace whatsoever can be of any benefit, but by
knowledge. All teaching is in vain, without learning. Therefore the preaching of the gospel
would be wholly to no purpose, if it conveyed no knowledge to the mind. There is an order of
men which Christ has appointed on purpose to be teachers in his church. But they teach in vain,
if no knowledge in these things is gained by their teaching. It is impossible that their teaching
and preaching should be a mean of grace, or of any good in the hearts of their hearers, any
otherwise than by knowledge imparted to the understanding. Otherwise it would be of as much
benefit to the auditory, if the minister should preach in some unknown tongue. All the difference
is, that preaching in a known tongue conveys something to the understanding, which preaching
in an unknown tongue cloth not. On this account, such preaching must be unprofitable. In such
things men receive nothing, when they understand nothing; and are not at all edified, unless some
knowledge be conveyed; agreeable to the apostle's arguing, I Cor. xiv. 26.
No speech can be a mean of grace, but by conveying knowledge. Otherwise the speech is as
much lost as if there had been no man there, and if he that spoke, had spoken only into the air; as
it follows in the passage just quoted, ver. 610. God deals with man as with a rational creature;
and when faith is in exercise, it is not about something he knows not what. Therefore hearing is
absolutely necessary to faith; because hearing is necessary to understanding, Rom. x. 14. " How
shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard?" In like manner, there can be no love
without knowledge. It is not according to the nature of the human soul, to love an object which is
The heart cannot be set upon an object of which there is no idea in the understanding. The
reasons which induce the soul to love, must first be understood, before they can have a
reasonable influence on the heart.
God hath given us the Bible, which is a book of instructions. But this book can be of no manner
of profit to us, any otherwise than as it conveys some knowledge to the mind: it can profit us no
more than if it were written in the Chinese or Tartarian language, of which we know not one
word. So the sacraments of the gospel can have a proper effect no other way, than by conveying
some knowledge. They represent certain things by visible signs. And what is the end of signs, but
to convey some knowledge of the things signified? Such is the nature of man, that no object can
come at the heart but through the door of the understanding: and there can be no spiritual
knowledge of that of which there is not first a rational knowledge. It is impossible that any one
should see the truth or excellency of any doctrine of the gospel, who knows not what that
doctrine is. A man cannot see the wonderful excellency and love of Christ in doing such and such
things for sinners, unless his understanding be first informed how those things were done. He
cannot have a taste of the sweetness and excellency of divine truth, unless he first have a notion
that there is such a thing.
Without knowledge in divinity, none would differ from the most ignorant and barbarous
heathens. The heathens remain in gross darkness, because they are not instructed, and have not
obtained the knowledge of divine truths.
If men have no knowledge of these things, the faculty of reason in them will be wholly in vain.
The faculty of reason and understanding was given for actual understanding and knowledge. If a
man have no actual knowledge, the faculty or capacity of knowing is of no use to him. And if he
have actual knowledge, yet if he be destitute of the knowledge of those things which are the last
end of his being, and for the sake of the knowledge of which he had more understanding given
him than the beasts; then still his faculty of reason is in vain; he might as well have been a beast
as a man. But divine subjects are the things, to know which we had the faculty of reason given
us. They are the things which appertain to the end of our being, and to the great business for
which we are made. Therefore a man cannot have
his faculty of understanding to any good purpose, further than he hath knowledge of divine truth.
So that this kind of knowledge is absolutely necessary.-Other kinds of knowledge may be very
useful. Some other sciences, such as astronomy, natural philosophy, and geography, may be very
excellent in their kind. But the knowledge of this divine science is infinitely more useful and
important than that of all other sciences whatever.
Why all Christians should make a business of endeavouring to grow in the knowledge of divinity
CHRISTIANS ought not to content themselves with such degrees of knowledge of divinity as
they have already obtained. It should not satisfy them, as they know as much as is absolutely
necessary to salvation, but should seek to make progress.
This endeavour to make progress in such knowledge ought not to be attended to as a thing by the
bye, but all Christians should make a business of it. They should look upon it as a part of their
daily business, and no small part of it neither. It should be attended to as a considerable part of
the work of their high calling.-For
1. Our business should doubtless much consist in employing those faculties, by which we are
distinguished from the beasts, about those things which are the main end of those faculties. The
reason why we have faculties superior to those of the brutes given us, is, that we are indeed
designed for a superior employment. That which the Creator intended should be our main
employment, is something above what he intended the beast for, and therefore hath given us
superior powers. Therefore, without doubt, it should be a considerable part of our business to
improve those superior faculties. But the faculty by which we are chiefly distinguished from the
brutes, is the faculty of understanding. It follows then, that we should make it our chief business
to improve this faculty, and should by no means prosecute it as a business by the bye. For us to
make the improvement of this faculty a business by the bye, is in effect for us to make the
faculty of understanding itself a byfaculty, if I may so speak, a faculty of less importance than
others: whereas indeed it is the highest faculty we have.
But we cannot make a business of the improvement of our intellectual faculty, any otherwise
than by making a business of improving ourselves in actual knowledge. So that those who make
not this very much their business; but instead of improving their understanding to acquire
knowledge, are chiefly devoted to their inferior power-to please their senses, and gratify their
animal appetites-not only behave themselves in a manner not becoming Christians, but also act
as if they had forgotten that they are men, and that God hath set them above the brutes, by giving
God hath given to man some things in common with the brutes, as his outward senses, his bodily
appetites, a capacity of bodily pleasure and pain, and other animal faculties: and some things he
hath given him superior to the brutes, the chief of which is a faculty of understanding and reason.
Now God never gave man these faculties to be subject to those which he hath in common with
the brutes. This would be great confusion, and equivalent to making man to be a servant of the
beasts. On the contrary, he has given those inferior powers to be employed in subserviency to
man's understanding; and therefore it must be a great part of man's principal business to improve
his understanding by acquiring knowledge. If so, then it will follow, that it should be a main part
of his business to improve his understanding in acquiring divine knowledge, or the knowledge of
the things of divinity: for the knowledge of these things is the principal end of this faculty. God
gave man the faculty of understanding, chiefly, that he might understand divine things.
The wiser heathens were sensible that the main business of man was the improvement and
exercise of his understanding. But they knew not the object about which the understanding
should chiefly be employed. That science which many of them thought should chiefly employ
the understanding, was philosophy; and accordingly they made it their chief business to study it.
But we who enjoy the light of the gospel are more happy; we are not left, as to this particular, in
the dark. God hath told us about what things we should chiefly employ our understandings,
having given us a book full of divine instructions, holding forth many glorious objects about
which all rational creatures should chiefly employ their understandings. These instructions are
accommodated to persons of all capacities and conditions, and proper to be studied, not only by
men of reaming, but by persons of every character, learned and unlearned, young and old, men
and women. Therefore the acquisition of knowledge in these things should be a main business of
all those who have the advantage of enjoying the Holy Scriptures.
2. The truths of divinity are of superlative excellency, and are worthy that all should make a
business of endeavouring to grow in the knowledge of them. They are as much above those
things which are treated of in other sciences, as heaven is above the earth. God himself, the
eternal Three in one, is the chief object of this science; and next Jesus Christ, as Godman and
Mediator, and the glorious work of redemption, the most glorious work that ever was wrought:
then the great things of the heavenly world, the glorious and eternal inheritance purchased by
Christ, and promised in the gospel; the work of the Holy Spirit of God on the hearts of men; our
duty to God, and the way in which we ourselves may become like angels, and like God himself
in our measure. All these are objects of this science.
Such things as these have been the main subject of the study of the holy patriarchs, prophets, and
apostles, and the most excellent men that ever existed; and they are also the subject of study to
the angels in heaven; 1 Pet. i. 1012. They are so excellent and worthy to be known, that the
knowledge of them will richly pay for all the pains and labour of an earnest seeking of it. If there
were a great treasure of gold and pearls accidentally found, and opened with such circumstances
that all might have as much as they could gather; would not every one think it worth his while to
make a business of gathering while it should last? But that treasure of divine knowledge, which
is contained in the Scriptures, and is provided for every one to gather to himself as much of it as
he can, is far more rich than any one of gold and pearls. How busy are all sorts of men, all over
the world, in getting riches! But this knowledge is a far better kind of riches, than that after
which they so diligently and laboriously pursue.
3. Divine truths not only concern ministers, but are of infinite importance to all Christians. It is
not with the doctrine of divinity as it is with the doctrines of philosophy and other sciences.
These last are generally speculative points, which are of little concern in human life; and it very
little alters the case as to our temporal or spiritual interests, whether we know them or not.
Philosophers differ about them, some being of one opinion, and others of another. And while
they are engaged in warm disputes about them, others may well leave them to dispute among
themselves, without troubling their heads much about them; it being of little concern to them,
whether the one or the other be in the right.-But it is not thus in matters of divinity. The doctrines
of this nearly concern every one. They are about those things which relate to every man's eternal
salvation and happiness. The common people cannot say, Let us leave these matters to ministers
and divines; let them dispute them out among themselves as they can; they concern not us: for
they are of infinite importance to every man. Those doctrines which relate to the essence,
attributes, and subsistencies of God, concern all; as it is of infinite importance to common
people, as well as to ministers, to know what kind of being God is. For he is a Being who hath
made us all, " in whom we live, and move, and have our being;" who is the Lord of all; the Being
to whom we are all accountable; who is the last end of our being, and the only fountain of our
The doctrines also which relate to Jesus Christ and his mediation, his incarnation, his life and
death, his resurrection and ascension, his sitting at the right hand of the Father, his satisfaction
and intercession, infinitely concern common people as well as divines. They stand in as much
need of this Saviour, and of an interest in his person and offices, and the things which he hath
done and suffered, as ministers and divines.-The same may be said of the doctrines which relate
to the manner of a sinner's justification, or the way in which he becomes interested in the
mediation of Christ. They equally concern all; for all stand in equal necessity of justification
before God. That eternal condemnation, to which we are all naturally exposed, is equally
dreadful. So with respect to those doctrines which relate to the work of the Spirit of God on the
heart, in the application of redemption in our effectual calling and sanctification, all are equally
concerned in them. There is no doctrine of divinity whatever, which doth not some way or other
concern the eternal interest of every Christian.
4. We may argue in favour of the same position, from the great things which God hath done in
order to give us instruction in these things. As to other sciences, he hath left us to ourselves, to
the light of our own reason. But divine things being of infinitely greater importance to us, he hath
not left us to an uncertain guide; but hath himself given us a revelation of the truth in these
matters, and hath done very great things to convey and confirm it to us; raising up many prophets
in different ages, immediately inspiring them with his Holy Spirit, and confirming their doctrine
with innumerable miracles or wonderful works out of the established course of nature. Yea, he
raised up a succession of prophets, which was upheld for several ages.
It was very much for this end that God separated the people of Israel, in so wonderful a manner,
from all other people, and kept them separate; that to them he might commit the oracles of God,
and that from them they might be communicated to the world. He hath also often sent angels to
bring divine instructions to men; and hath often himself appeared in miraculous symbols or
representations of his presence: and now in these last days hath sent his own Son into the world,
to be his great prophet, to teach us divine truth. Heb. i. 1, etc. God hath given us a book of divine
instructions, which contains the sum of divinity. Now, these things hath God done, not only for
the instruction of ministers and men of learning; but for the instruction of all men, of all sorts,
learned and unlearned, men, women, and children. And certainly if God cloth such great things
to teach us, we ought to do something to learn.
God giving instructions to men in these things, is not a business by the by; but what he hath
undertaken and prosecuted in a course of great and wonderful dispensations, as an affair in which
his heart hath been greatly engaged; which is sometimes in Scripture signified by the expression
of God's rising early to teach us, and to send us prophets and teachers. Jer. vii. 25. " Since that
day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Egypt, unto this day, I have even sent unto you
all my servants the prophets, daily rising up early, and sending them." And ver. 13. " I spake unto
you; rising up early, and speaking." This is a figurative speech, signifying, that God hath done
this as a business of great importance, in which he took great care, and had his heart much
engaged; because persons are wont to rise early to prosecute such business as they are earnestly
engaged in. If God hath been so engaged in teaching, certainly we should not be negligent in
learning; but should make growing in knowledge a great part of the business of our lives.
5. It may be argued from the abundance of the instructions which God hath given us, from the
largeness of that book which God hath given to teach us divinity, and from the great variety that
is therein contained. Much was taught by Moses of old, which we have transmitted down to us;
after that, other books were from time to time added; much is taught us by David and Solomon;
and many and excellent are the instructions communicated by the prophets: yet God did not think
all this enough, but after this sent Christ and his apostles, by whom there is added a great and
excellent treasure to that holy book, which is to be our rule in the study of this important subject.
This book was written for the use of all; all are directed to search the Scriptures, John v. 39. "
Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life; and they are they that testify of
me;" and Isa. xxxiv. 16. "Seek ye out of the book of the Lord, and read." They that read and
understand are pronounced blessed, Rev. i. 3. " Blessed is he that readeth, and they that
understand the words of this prophecy." If this be true of that particular book of the Revelation,
much more is it true of the Bible in general. Nor is it to be believed that God would have given
instructions in such abundance, if he had intended that receiving instruction should be only a bye
concern with us.
It is to be considered, that all those abundant instructions which are contained in the Scriptures
were written that they might be understood: otherwise they are not instructions. That which is not
given that the learner may understand it, is not given for the learner's instruction; unless we
endeavour to grow in the knowledge of divinity, a very great part of those instructions will to us
be in vain; for we can receive benefit by no more of the Scriptures than we understand. We have
reason to bless God that he hath given us such various and plentiful instruction in his word; but
we shall be hypocritical in so doing, if we after all content ourselves with but little of this
When God hath opened a very large treasure before us, for the supply of our wants, and we
thank him that he hath given us so much; if at the same time we be willing to remain destitute of
the greatest pare of it, because we are too lazy to gather it, this will not show the sincerity of our
thankfulness. We are now under much greater advantages to acquire knowledge in divinity, than
the people of God were of old, because since that time the canon of Scripture is much increased.
But if we be negligent of our advantages, we may be never the better for them, and may remain
with as little knowledge as they.
6. However diligent we apply ourselves, there is room enough to increase our knowledge in
divine truth. None have this excuse to make for not diligently applying themselves to gain
knowledge in divinity, that they already know all; nor can they make this excuse, that they have
no need diligently to apply themselves, in order to know all that is to be known. None can excuse
themselves for want of business in which to employ themselves. There is room enough to
employ ourselves for ever in this divine science, with the utmost application. Those who have
applied themselves most closely, have studied the longest, and have made the greatest
attainments in this knowledge, know but little of what is to be known. The subject is
inexhaustible. That divine Being, who is the main subject of this science, is inf
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