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COVENANTS

Written by: Monk, Charles L.    Posted on: 05/06/2003

Category: Bible Studies

Source: CCN

    COVENANTS

A look at the Biblical Covenants and their meaning to both the nation Israel-- to whom they were ALL given--and their significance to the Church--to whom they were given for edification.  This material was used to present an 11 week adult Sunday School class to Sugar Land Bible Church in the final quarter of 1987.  It was compiled by Charles L. Monk.  Any questions or comments on this material would be greatly appreciated. Feel free to call 725-1513 or leave a bulletin board message with KSBJ bulletin board at 446-8878.

Definition:  From the Hebrew berith it is translated "will", "covenant",     and "testament," and comes from the word translated "to cut".  Also from     the Greek diatheke. It is mentioned 300 times in Scripture.  It is     important to note that not all the covenants are mutual agreements i.e. it     is not IF you do this THEN I will do that. A covenant in the strict     biblical sense is not a joint obligation but rather a commitment one makes     to another. A covenant is a relationship wherein the party making the     covenant binds himself to fulfill certain conditions.  This was often     sworn and invoked in the presence of God to make the promise more solemn     and binding (1 Samuel 20:8).  When God's name was invoked and the covenant     was broken it was considered a heinous sin (Ezekiel 17:12-20).  An example     of covenant is marriage (Proverbs 2:17; Malachi 2:14).  Covenants were     sealed with a gift which was to be looked at and remembered (Genesis     21:30) or attested to by a monument such as planting a tree (Genesis     21:33) or a heap of stones (Genesis 31:52).

    Examples of Covenants     Man to Man   Between Relative Equals       As in marriage Proverbs 2:17 and Malachi 2:14       As between Abraham and Abimelech governing water rights in Genesis 21:27.       As between tribes or nations 1 Samuel 11:1.   Between Superior to Subordinate       As when Nebuchadnezzar imposed the covenant on Zedekiah in Ezekiel 17.

    God to Man

    Since man is not in a position to covenant with God either as a relative     equal and since God has not imposed His covenants on man we can see that     covenants relating to God in Scripture are rather self-imposed.  In this     regard God agrees to arrange His providences for the welfare of man.

      Examples: God chose Israel to be His nation, adopting the Hebrews to be His people (Amos 3:2). God chose to redeem sinful man.

Steps in Covenant Cutting

.    1. Preparation--Since a covenant was meant to be a permanent relationship it was entered into only after much prayer, counsel and deep thought. .    2. A Witness was sought as a trusted mediator of both sides.  A covenant was meant to be a public declaration of intent. Depending on its importance, God was sometimes called upon to witness.  Sometimes heaven and earth were the only witnesses. .    3. Often garments and weapons were exchanged.  A garment signified who the individual was i.e. the tribes would wear clothing which would readily be identifiable to others. This kept the parties ever mindful of their commitment. .    4. The belt or girdle would be exchanged signifying, "My strength is your strength." .    5. An animal would be split in two and the parties would stand in the midst of the split animal, thus representing as the animal gave up its life, so too, will I give up my life to maintain this covenant.  In a mutual covenant both parties would then cut their own wrists, raise their hands into the air and clasp hands while pointing to heaven making God their witness to this agreement. The intermingling of the blood signified the joining of a blood relationship.  They would then often coterize the wound with a hot branding iron to inflict a noticeable scar which would act as a perpetual reminder. .    6. Often times names would be exchanged and the parties would refer to themselves as ___________ the friend of ____________. .    7. Exchange a list of ALL assets and liabilities because as a united, covenanted pair they would each share the other's belongings and burdens. .    8. A formal exchange of the covenant's blessings and curses was then made in public and an exchange of Mizpah not asking for God's blessing or benediction but asking that Yahweh insure the faithfulness of the covenant. .    9. Set up the covenant reminder, i.e. a plant, a tree, a heap of stones. .    10. The covenant meal of bread and wine--This is my body which as you eat it becomes a part of you--this is my blood which as you drink it becomes your blood.

    Covenants of the Bible

1.  Edenic Covenant  (Genesis 1:26-31; 2:16-17) .    God provided everything necessary for human existence in the Garden of Eden when man was innocent of all sin.There was only one simple prohibition, "...but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat." The covenant was, "I will provide everything you will need as long as you do not eat of the one tree." .    Man's life in Eden was idyllic.  Living in a perfect environment he had congenial employment and perfect companionship. Even God came and communed with him.  Adam was appointed as a gardner and a guardian.  He was told to dress and keep the garden as well as be fruitful and multiply and subdue the earth.The prohibition was a test of his loyalty and love.  The test itself tells us man was created a morally accountable creature responsible for his actions and answerable to God.This disproves the popular notion that given the perfect environment man will behave in a morally acceptable way. .    The Edenic covenant is one of two covenants that is conditional

2.  Adamic Covenant (Genesis 3:16-19) .    This covenant is unconditional in which God declared to Adam what man's lot in life will be now that sin is in the world.  The conditions of this covenant will exist until the Kingdom Age (Romans 8:21).  There is no appeal and there is no human responsibility involved.The outcome of the arrangement is entirely based on God and His sovereign control. .    Elements of the covenant are the cursing of the serpent used by Satan (Gen 3:14; Romans 16:20; 2 Cor 11:3, 14; Rev 12:9) the promise of a Redeemer (Gen 3:15).  We see in this prophecy both advents of Christ. The multiplied sorrow and pain of women in childbirth and motherhood is also mentioned; prior to the fall woman's position in comparison to the man's was subordinate due to Adam's divinely ordained headship, after the fall firmer headship was invested in man due to woman's responding to the serpent.  Man would henceforth earn his living by sweat (Gen 2:15); man's life would now be filled with sorrow and ultimate death (Gen 3:19; Eph 2:5).  Perhaps the most significant curse was the spiritual death which Adam and Eve experienced "on the day they ate of the fruit."  A flaming cherub was placed as a testimonial to the restriction of the covenant.

3.  Noahic Covenant (Genesis 9:1-18) .    This covenant repeats some of the features of the Adamic but also adds the principle of human government as a means of curbing sin.  Like the Adamic it is unconditional and it reveals God's purpose for the human race subsequent to Noah. .    Provisions included the establishment of captial punishment for taking another man's life, thus the institution of government is ordained as society was called upon to execute judgment; the normal order of nature is reaffirmed (Man's dominance over the animals), and God restored nature's stability; man is given permission to eat the flesh of animals (Genesis 9:3-4) which is evidently a new allowance.  The covenant with Noah also included prophecy concerning the descendents of his three sons designating Shem as the godly line through whom the Messiah would come; that world power would rest in the hands of Japeth (although at first this was not the case i.e. Egypt, Assyria, Babylon were Hamitic/Shemitic) and that the Canaanite races would come under God's special curse. .    The seal of the covenant was the rainbow.

4.  Abrahamic Covenant (Genesis 12:1-4; 13:14-17; 15:1-18; 17:1-8) Reconfirmed     through Isaac (Genesis 26:2-5) Jacob (Genesis 28:1-4, 12-15)   Who was Abraham's second wife?  Keturah an Egyptian .    This covenant is absolutely unconditional!!, is everlasting (Genesis 17:7) and is one of the most profound in Scripture.  The sign of the covenant is circumcision.  In response to the question, "How may I know that I will possess it?" God establishes a solemn covenant with Abraham.  There are no "ifs" in the formal declaration of Genesis 15:7-18.  The purpose of the covenant was to prove to Abraham that God would keep His commitment.  If it were dependent upon Abraham's actions it would not have been reconfirmed years later after much sinning, and yet it was reconfirmed to Abraham's offspring in the same manner it was given to Abraham. (See Genesis 50:24-26 and Exodus 2:24; 6:2-8; Psalm 105:8-11; Luke 1:67-75; Hebrews 6:13-18) It guarantees the permanent existence of Israel as a nation and it guarantees Israel's permanent ownership of the promised land.

Given along three lines the Abrahamic covenant includes:   A.  Promises to Abraham of numerous posterity (Genesis 17:16); that he would have personal blessing (Genesis 13:14-17; 15:6,18; 24:34-35; John 8:56) that his name would be great (Genesis 12:2) i.e. what are the three great monotheistic world religions and what part does Abraham play in these religions? and that he would personally be a blessing (Genesis 12:2)   B.  Promises of a great nation (Genesis 12:2) which was realized later through Jacob and the twelve tribes.  Included in this was the promise of a land (Genesis 12:7; 13:15; 15:18-21; 17:7-8)   C.  Promises to the entire world through Abraham (Genesis 12:3). Abraham's seed was both physically evident in the Jewish nation but it was also spiritually included in all mankind among those who exercise an Abrahamic kind of faith (Genesis 15:6).This was to be fulfilled by Israel's being the channel of divine revelation, the source of prophets and ultimately the epitome of blessing the Messiah, Jesus Christ. .    The covenant also included a prophecy of protection in a curse to all who cursed and blessings to all who blessed Israel. The covenant is unconditional in that any generation could avail themselves of the promises only if they were obedient to God, but the ultimate purpose and fulfillment is entirely dependent upon God.  He has revealed Himself through Israel, He has blessed Israel, He has provided redemption through Israel, He brought Israel into the promised land.All is dependent upon God. .    The Abrahamic covenant's fulfillments through the ages gives us good reasons to expect the fulfillment of God's promises--whether to Abraham's physical see, the Jews, or to his spiritual seed, we Christians.

I feel the Abrahamic Covenant is unconditional for the following reasons:     a. There are no "if's" recorded in the formal establishment of the covenant (Gen 15:7-21) and Galatians 3:15 says nothing can be added to an established covenant.     b. Only God passed between the halves of the animals showing the total dependency is on God not on Abraham or his descendents.     c. God formally declares the covenant in response to Abraham's question asking for assurance that he would possess the land.  The covenant was God's confirming proof that Abraham would possess the land he was promised.  So in effect, the Covenant was established to remove the doubt in Abraham's mind that God would fulfill His promise.     d. The Abrahamic Covenant was still in effect after Abraham (and his descendents) had sinned several times.Had it been dependent on their keeping their portion it would have already ceased.  Even David believed that it was still in effect (see 1 Chron 16:15-18).     e. Moses told the people that despite their sinfulness God would not forget the covenant He had made with Abraham (Dt 4:25-31).     f. Even though the Jews rejected Jesus Christ Peter mentions in Acts 3:12-26 that the Covenant was still in effect (even to those who had personally rejected Jesus!!)     g. The author of Hebrews specifically states the covenant is part of God's "unchangeableness of His purpose" (6:13-18).     h. Finally, the Abrahamic Covenant included a universal blessing through Abraham's seed.  This could not be the case if it depended on man's ability to meet God's standards.

5.  Mosaic Covenant Exodus 19:4-6 (YHWH's) 19:8 (Israel's) 20:1-31:18       specifics .    Composed of 613 (365 prohibitions and 248 demands) specific commands probing every area of national life--from personal matters like marriage, sex, hygiene and diet; to public matters like finance, welfare, government and political alliances.  The Mosaic Covenant was given by God to Moses to govern His relationship to the people of Israel.  This covenant is a temporary modification of the Abrahamic Covenant but does not in any way negate the unconditional Abrahamic Covenant.  Its commands were simple, comprehensive and just and can be classified into three areas: 1) The commandments containing the express will of God (Exodus 20:1-26).  2) Judgments relating to the social and civic life of Israel (Ex 21:1-24:11).  3) The ordinances (Ex 24:12-31:18). Another division of these laws is: The Moral Laws i.e. the 10 commandments; The Civil Laws i.e. the administration of justice and distribution of wealth; and the Ceremonial Laws i.e. regarding sacrifices, worship offerings and cleansing. .    There is no doubt that the Mosaic Covenant is conditional and, fortunately, temporary since it was fulfilled to God's satisfaction by Jesus Christ. The effects of this covenant terminated at the foot of Christ's cross. The sign of the covenant was the Sabbath.  Of all the commandments which are carried over into the New Testament to the Believer only one is not binding--the command to keep the Sabbath. .    The Mosaic Covenant is the most remarkable legal code ever held by ANY ancient people. In school we learn of the Code of Hammurabi but it pales in comparison to Exodus and Deuteronomy.  It was given specifically to Israel and through the ages many have insisted that it ought to be upheld by all believers.  The book of Galatians is written specifically to combat the belief that there is benefit in keeping the Law (see what it says is the purpose Gal 3:24--to lead us to Christ). Given at Mt. Sinai under the most solemn of conditions the purpose was to teach Israel of God's holiness, His righteous demands and the seriousness of sin and to show the people there was never any way that man could possibly be in a position to save himself. .    In the formal declaration of the covenant (19:5,6) God assures the Israelites that He would do three things IF they would obey Him:     1) He would make them a cherished possession of His own.     2) He would make them a kingdom of priests to mediate God's blessings to the Gentile nations.     3) He would make them a "holy nation" if they would obey Him.

The death penalty was levied for:  murder, adultery, breaking the Sabbath, rebellion against parents, witchcraft, sorcery, spiritism, kidnapping, and sexual perversion (including homosexuality and bestiality).  Israel was supposed to learn that the wages of sin is death!! .    The ten commandments is a summation of the Law.  (Also referred to as the Decalogue.)

6.  Palestinian/Deuteronomic Covenant (Deuteronomy 30:1-10) .    Established by God with Israel AFTER the 40 years of wandering, this covenant was given to insure that the people still understood that He would continue to be faithful to them and live up to His part of the Abrahamic/Mosaic covenant despite their unfaithfulness; but it was more than just a re-statement of the Abrahamic or Mosaic covenants (See Dt 29:1). A new generation of Israelites needed to be reminded in a solemn way of their special, covenant relationship with YHWH.  The covenant was given to the people just prior to their invasion of Palestine.  Their location was on the plains of Moab, east of the Dead Sea and across from the land of Canaan.  The Palestinian Covenant deals specifically with a specific plot of land--Palestine.  The boundaries of this land was from the Euphrates River in the North to the "river of Egypt" in the South (some say this is the Nile others think it is the small stream at the border of present day Egypt and Israel. The western boundary is the Mediterranean Sea and the eastern boundary is probably the desert region beyond the Jordan river. This extensive geographic area has NEVER been fully occupied by the descendants of Abraham, consequently this prophecy/promise has never been fulfilled. Interestingly, Moses indicated that the promises would be fulfilled when all the blessings AND the curses promised in Dt 28 had been fulfilled and then only when Israel genuinely turned to God in repentance and willingness to obey. .    Provisions included a miraculous regathering of Israel from all over the world (some see the fulfillment of this in Israel's current regathering after the establishment of the nation on May 14, 1948).  There was also to be a restoration of the land to Israel and a regeneration of the Jews causing them to love Him totally.  Also included was God's judgment of their enemies and that the people would again obey Him leading to their renewed prosperity. .    Even though God chastened His people by driving them out of this promised land He would eventually bring repentance.  This covenant spelled out the conditions under which Israel would be allowed to occupy the Promised Land. As a nation the Jews will some day be fully, miraculously and permanently restored to the land which was given to them as an everlasting possession. .    God had the people divide in half--half on Mt. Ebal and half on Mt. Gerazim.  Those on Gerazim were to shout out the blessings of the Law.Those on Ebal were to shout out the curses of the Law.  This way no one would have an excuse for not knowing the contents of the Law and the terms of God's agreement with them. .    In the first 5 verses of Dt 30, 4 stages of Israel's history are outlined 1) their dispersion v.1;  2)their repentance v.2;  3) their regathering v.3,4; 4) their reward v5.  Due to their disobedience the Jews have suffered terribly.  They were ruled by Rome in Christ's day but rebelled in A.D. 70 and 250,000 were killed.  They rebelled again in A.D. 135 and again Rome smashed them killing even more and scattering them throughout the empire. Since then they have been bitterly persecuted.Forcibly expelled from England in 1290 and from France 1306.  In 1298 more than 100,000 were killed in Europe. From 1648 to 1658 some 400,000 were massacred. From 1939-45 Hitler's Nazis killed more than 4 million.  Still the promises given to Abraham are just as valid as they were thousands of years ago.  In its history Egyptian Pharoahs, Assyrian Kings, Babylonian rulers, Persian satraps, Greek Hellenists, Roman Caesars, Holy Roman Emperors, Roman Catholic Pontiffs, Medieval monarchs, Christian Crusaders, Spanish Inquisitors, Nazi dictators, Communist commisars, Arab shieks and United Nation delegates have all turned against the Jew yet they still survive. Someone has once said the existence of the Jew is proof alone of God's existence! .    This covenant was also unconditional as far as its fulfillment is concerned but is conditional in that the generation that applies the covenant must be obedient to God.  The promise of Genesis 12:7 is valid but has been postponed numerous times due to disbelief and disobedience and ultimately will be fulfilled in the Millenium.Therefore the present return of Israel to the Land is important because it sets the stage for the miraculous return of ALL Israel to the Land. .    Centuries after giving these promises to Israel God reiterated them through the prophets Jeremiah (32:36-44) and Ezekiel (36:22-38). .    Several things need to be pointed out: A.  God made this covenant with the same national group which He later banished into dispersion.  He made these promises to a literal national body--Israel thus the promises must be fulfilled to a literal national body--Israel. B.  God always leaves the way open for the unfaithful to return to Him. C.  The ultimate fulfillment of these promises is still future. D.  The fact that the promises can only come to fruition when all the curses are complete shows that God is obviously not finished with the Jew.  Literal Israel will survive and figure prominently in future world events. E.  The promise of the Godly restoration of the land to Israel does not necessarily indicate Israel's presence in the land now is indicative of the End Times but it does prove Israel's claim to the land as a God-given inheiritance. F.  This covenant guarantees that literal Israel will repent and be saved (but after God finishes their chastening).  This is made clear by later prophets: Hosea 3:4-5; Zec 12:10; 13:1; Romans 11:25-27 G.  Though not specifically mentioned here, the Tribulation in all its terrible agony, will be the last and most horrendous segment of the curses of Dt 28.It will be God's instrument to break Israel's rebellion and to bring that nation back to Him.

7.  Davidic Covenant (2 Samuel 7:4-16; 1 Chronicles 17:3-15) .    Though not specifically here stated to be a covenant, this was understood from other writings (2 Sam 23:5; 2 Chron 7:18; 21:7; Ps 89:3-4; Jer 33:19-26). In this covenant God promised David 3 things:  1) David's "house" (his physical line of descent) would endure forever. 2) David's kingdom would never permanently pass away (though it would cease to function, it would always have the potential of being restored to full function.) This is why the Jews clung so tenaciously to Christ when He triumphantly entered Jerusalem (See Mk 11:10 and Acts 1:6).  3) David's throne or his ruling authority would never permanently pass away.  Again, it would cease to function but it would always be available for restoration (See Lk 1:32-33). .    Like so many of the other covenants, this one is unconditional.  David had to do nothing to make its provisions come to pass, they are entirely dependent upon God for their fulfillment. .    Jesus is of Davidic origin--both Matthew and Luke attest to this in their genealogies.  Gabriel announced the Davidic throne would be given to Christ forever (Lk 1:31-33).  Peter attests to Christ's rightful heirship of the David throne (Acts 2:30).  Isaiah prophesied concerning the Messiah's government (Is 9:7).  Based on these scriptures it is obvious that Christ is the ultimate fulfillment of these scriptures and this will be fulfilled during the Millenium when Christ will rule over the literal, earthly, political kingdom on this present earth (Mt 24:30). .    Anti-Amillennialist Theology  (who say Christ will not reign over a   literal, earthly, political kingdom on the present earth)       1.  Dan 7:13-14 portrays God giving the kingdom forever to the Son of       Man when He comes with the clouds of heaven (obviously not first       coming.)       2.  The kingdom is given after the Roman Empire (the little   horn/Antichrist) have caused the terrible tribulation.       3.  Mt 24:29-31 Jesus clearly teaches He will fulfill this when He   comes the second time and that it would happen immediately after   the tribulation.       4.  All this proves He is not exercising this authority during the   present age, as the Amillennialist would have us to believe.       5.  Mt 25:31-46 clearly teach Christ's throne and kingdom are in   conjunction with His second coming.       6.  Zechariah 14:4,9 teaches Messiah will be king after His feet touch   down on the Mount of Olives.       7.  Psalm 110:1-2 indicate the Messiah is to sit at the right hand of   God until it is time for Him to rule.       8.  Mt 19:28 and Rms 8:18-22 set forth that Christ's reign would be   after the earth is restored to its pre-Fall condition.  In Acts   3:19-21 Peter teaches this will not happen while Christ is in   heaven but at His return. .    The current state of Israel is not being guided by a Davidic king but that does not nullify the covenant it only is a fulfillment of Hosea's prophecy (3:4-5).  Just as the Abrahamic covenant provided them with an everlasting entity as a nation (Jer 31:36); an everlasting possession of the land (Gen 13:15; 1 Chron 16:15-18; Ps 105:9-11) so the Davidic Covenant guarantees them an everlasting throne (2 Sam 7:16; Ps 89:36); an everlasting King (Jer 32:21); and an everlasting kingdom (Dan 7:14).

8.  The New Covenant (Jeremiah 31:31) .    First attested to by the prophet Jeremiah, this covenant was written about 1,000 years after the Mosaic.  The Israelites had lived under the blessings of God given for obedience, but more often they had lived under the judgments due to their disobedience.  Now at a dismal time in their history, a time when they were in danger of being obliterated as a national entity, God makes this covenant known to them. .    That this covenant was a covenant specifically established between God and Israel cannot be negated.  Jeremiah 31:31 states, "I (YHWH) will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah."  Isaiah 59:20-21; Jeremiah 50:4-5; Ezekiel 34:25-30 and 37:21-28 all further attest that the parties involved were God and the nation of Israel.  God specifically gave the Mosaic Law to the people of Israel (Lev 26:46; Dt 4:8) and not to the Gentiles (Rms 2:14) and since He promised to establish the new covenant with the descendents of those to whom He gave the Old Mosaic Law covenant, then the New Covenant must be established with Israel.  Also, this covenant was an eternal, everlasting covenant, the same one spoken of at Isaiah 53 and 61:8. The author of Hebrews indicates it is eternal (13:20) and "better" (8:6)  In all the other covenants there were shadows--here there is substance.  In all the others there were types--here, fulfillment. This covenant is eternal in both directions, it was established before the foundations of the world. .    Provisions of the New Covenant were:       1) Regeneration and the giving of a new heart;       2) Forgiveness of sin (Jer 31:34; Ez 36:26);       3) Indwelling of the Holy Spirit (Ez 36:27);       4) Universal knowledge of YHWH among the people of Israel (Jer 31:34)       5) That Israel would obey God and have a right attitude toward Him   forever (Jer 32:39-40; Ez 36:27; 37:23-24);       6) National blessings to the people of Israel   a.  His Spirit would not depart from them (Is 59:21)   b.  They would have a great reputation because of special blessings       (Is 61:8-9)   c.  They would have a unique relationship with YHWH (Jer 31:33; Ez       36:28)   d.  That God would do them good (Jer 32:40-42)   e.  That wild beasts would be eliminated from their land (Ez 34:25,       28)   f.  That Israel would enjoy complete security in their land (Ez       34:25-28)   g.  They would not be threatened or insulted by other nations (Ez       34:28-29)   h.  That great abundance of food would eliminate famine (Ex 34:27,       29; 36:29-30)   i.  Their land would be compared to the Garden of Eden (Ez 34:29)   j.  That rainfall would be perfectly controlled (Ez 34:29; 36:34-35)   k.  Israel's cities would be rebuilt and inhabited (Ez 36:33)   l.  The nation would enjoy a population explosion (Ez 36:37-38;37:26   m.  That there would be complete unity in the land (Ez 37:21-22)   n.  That they would live in their own land forever (Ez 37:25)   o.  That once again, as in the past, God Himself would have His       sanctuary in their midst and dwell with them in the midst of       their nation forever (Ez 37:26-28)   p.  That God would never again turn away from His people (Jer 32:40) .    This covenant was meant to be unconditional, in fact God specifically states that He would fulfill it despite Israel's disobedience (Ez 36:21-22). The idea that God would cause the people to have a new and right attitude about Him points out the unconditional nature of this covenant. Another proof of this is Ez 36:36 where God uncategorically states, "I, YHWH, have spoken it, and I will do it."

How does the Church fit into the New Covenant?

.    First, the Old Testament says nothing about the church's relationship under the New Covenant. Paul indicates this should come as no surprise since no revelation of the church age was given to any prophet prior to the time of the Apostles and New Testament prophets (Eph 3:2-9) and secondly, the Old Testament prophets who presented God's revelation of the New Covenant were amazingly---Israelites whose specific task it was to reveal God's message to His people.  Despite the Old Testament's silence concerning the Church's relationship to this covenant, the New Testament indicates several areas in which the Church is tied in:     a. The Church partakes of communion (1Cor 11:23-30; 10:21) which, when   it was established by the Lord, was to be a sign of the New   Covenant (1 Cor 11:25; Lk 22:20)     b. Believers who make up the Church partake of the spiritual blessings   w

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