Christian Doctrine, S1, SABBATH- SEPARATION
Written by: Unknown Posted on: 05/05/2003
Category: Bible Studies
The following chart is taken from "The New Unger's Bible Dictionary"
So also is the material covering the topics of: Sabbath (Festivals),
and Sabbath Festivals (as Types). ---------------------
Festivals of Israel
Cycle or Name of Reference in the
Historic Period Observance Scripture or Apocrypha
"Septenary" Weekly Sabbath Exodus 20: 8-11
(or cycles of Sabbaths) 31:12-17
(i.e. cycles of Sevens) Leviticus 23:12
Seventh New Moon Numbers 28:11-15
(or Feast of Trumpets) 29: 1-6
Sabbatic Year Exodus 23:10-11
(every seventh year) Leviticus 25: 2-7
Year of Jubilee Leviticus 25: 8-16
New Moon Numbers 10:10
Yearly *** Feast of Passover Exodus 12: 1-28
* and Unleavened Bread 23:15
* (1st of the 3 Great Leviticus 23: 4-8
* Annual Feasts) Numbers 28:16-25
* Deuteronomy 16:16
* 18: 1-8
* Offering of the Exodus 23:16
*** Firstfruits or Harvest Leviticus 23:11
Pentecost Exodus 34:22
[or Feast of Weeks] Leviticus 23:15-16
(2nd of the 3 Great Numbers 28:26
Annual Feasts) Deuteronomy 16:10, 16
Day of Atonement Exodus 30:10-30
Leviticus 16: 1-34
Numbers 29: 7-11
Feast of Booths Leviticus 23:34-42
[Tabernacles] Numbers 29:12-38
(3rd of the 3 Great Deuteronomy 10:13-16
Annual Feasts) Nehemiah 8:13-18
John 7: 2, 37
Postexilic Feast of Purim Esther 9:24-32
Feast of Dedication 1 Maccabees 4:52-59
2 Maccabees 10: 5-8
1.> The Weekly Sabbath (Exodus 20:8-11; 31:12-17).
The name "Sabbath" is applied to various great festivals but
principally and usually to the seventh day of the week, the strict
observance of which is enforced not merely in the general Mosaic
code but also in the Ten Commandments.
EXO 20:8 "Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.
EXO 20:9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work,
EXO 20:10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On
it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter,
nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien
within your gates.
EXO 20:11 For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth,
the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day.
Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.
EXO 31:12 Then the LORD said to Moses,
EXO 31:13 "Say to the Israelites, 'You must observe my Sabbaths.
This will be a sign between me and you for the generations to come,
so you may know that I am the LORD, who makes you holy.
EXO 31:14 "'Observe the Sabbath, because it is holy to you. Anyone
who desecrates it must be put to death; whoever does any work on
that day must be cut off from his people.
EXO 31:15 For six days, work is to be done, but the seventh day is
a Sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD. Whoever does any work on the
Sabbath day must be put to death.
EXO 31:16 The Israelites are to observe the Sabbath, celebrating it
for the generations to come as a lasting covenant.
EXO 31:17 It will be a sign between me and the Israelites forever,
for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, and on the
seventh day he abstained from work and rested.'"
2.> The Feast of Trumpets (or Seventh New Moon) (Numbers 29:1).
NUM 29:1 "'On the first day of the seventh month hold a sacred
assembly and do no regular work. It is a day for you to sound the
The feast of the New Moon, which fell on the seventh month,
or Tishri. This differed from the ordinary festivals of the new moon
because of the symbolic meaning of the seventh or sabbatical month
and partly, perhaps, because it marked the beginning of the civil
year. This month was distinguished above all the other months of the
year by the multitude of ordinances connected with it, the first day
being consecrated to sacred rest and spiritual employment, the tenth
being the Day of Atonement, whereas the fifteenth began the feast of
Booths (Tabernacles, KJV).
This day was observed as a feast day, in the strict sense, by
resting from all work, and as a holy convocation, by the blowing of
horns. Throughout the day trumpets were blown at Jerusalem from
morning to evening. In the Temple it was done even on a Sabbath, but
not outside its walls.
The Day of Atonement, which falls on this month, provides full
expiation of all sins and the removal of all uncleanness; and the
Feast of Tabernacles, beginning five days thereafter, provides a
foretaste of the blessedness of life in fellowship with the Lord.
The fact that Tishri was the great month for sowing might easily
have suggested the thought of commemorating on this day the finished
work of creation, and thus the feast of Trumpets came to be regarded
as the anniversary of the beginning of the world.
3.> Sabbatic Year (Exodus 23:10-11; Leviticus 25:2-7).
The newest edition of "The International Standard Bible Encyclope-
dia" says this...
Observance of the Sabbatical Year possessed agricultural and
economic value, for it prevented continuous tilling of the land
(Leviticus 25:4). It thus corresponded to the weekly sabbath rest
after six days of labor. But a more important feature, and one that
is more stressed by Scripture, is the Sabbatical Year's social
function of aiding the poor; it specifically designated to them
whatever happened to grow during the seventh season (Exodus 23:10).
Unger's Bible Dictionary continues with the following...
The sabbatic year, like the year of Jubilee, began on the
first day of the civil year, namely, the first of the month Tishri.
Although this was the time fixed for the celebration of the sabbatic
year during the time of the second Temple, the tillage and cultiva-
tion of certain fields and gardens had already begun to be left off
in the sixth year. Thus it was ordained that fields upon which trees
were planted were not to be cultivated after the feast of Pentecost
of the sixth year, whereas the cultivation of grainfields was to
cease from the feast of the Passover.
EXO 23:10 "For six years you are to sow your fields and harvest the
EXO 23:11 but during the seventh year let the land lie unplowed and
unused. Then the poor among your people may get food from it, and
the wild animals may eat what they leave. Do the same with your
vineyard and your olive grove.
LEV 25:2 "Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'When you enter
the land I am going to give you, the land itself must observe a
sabbath to the LORD.
LEV 25:3 For six years sow your fields, and for six years prune
your vineyards and gather their crops.
LEV 25:4 But in the seventh year the land is to have a sabbath of
rest, a sabbath to the LORD. Do not sow your fields or prune your
LEV 25:5 Do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the grapes of
your untended vines. The land is to have a year of rest.
LEV 25:6 Whatever the land yields during the sabbath year will be
food for you--for yourself, your manservant and maidservant, and the
hired worker and temporary resident who live among you,
LEV 25:7 as well as for your livestock and the wild animals in your
land. Whatever the land produces may be eaten.
4.> The Year of Jubilee (Leviticus 25:8-16).
LEV 25:8 "'Count off seven sabbaths of years--seven times seven
years--so that the seven sabbaths of years amount to a period of
LEV 25:9 Then have the trumpet sounded everywhere on the tenth day
of the seventh month; on the Day of Atonement sound the trumpet
throughout your land.
LEV 25:10 Consecrate the fiftieth year and proclaim liberty
throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee
for you; each one of you is to return to his family property and
each to his own clan.
LEV 25:11 The fiftieth year shall be a jubilee for you; do not sow
and do not reap what grows of itself or harvest the untended vines.
LEV 25:12 For it is a jubilee and is to be holy for you; eat only
what is taken directly from the fields.
LEV 25:13 "'In this Year of Jubilee everyone is to return to his
LEV 25:14 "'If you sell land to one of your countrymen or buy any
from him, do not take advantage of each other.
LEV 25:15 You are to buy from your countryman on the basis of the
number of years since the Jubilee. And he is to sell to you on the
basis of the number of years left for harvesting crops.
LEV 25:16 When the years are many, you are to increase the price,
and when the years are few, you are to decrease the price, because
what he is really selling you is the number of crops.
5.> The "New Moon" (Numbers 10:10).
NUM 10:10 Also at your times of rejoicing--your appointed feasts
and New Moon festivals--you are to sound the trumpets over your
burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, and they will be a memori-
al for you before your God. I am the LORD your God."
The new moon stood as the representative of the month or "the
beginning of the month". The new moon was not reckoned by astronomi-
cal calculation, but by actual personal observation. On the thirti-
eth day of the month watchmen were placed on commanding heights
around Jerusalem to watch the sky. As soon as each of them detected
the moon he hastened to a house in the city kept for this purpose
and was there examined by the president of the Sanhedrin. When the
evidence of the appearance was deemed satisfactory, the president
stood up and formally announced it, uttering the words, "It is
consecrated". The information was immediately sent throughout the
land from the Mount of Olives by beacon fires on the tops of the
hills. The religious observance of the day of the new moon may
plainly be regarded as the consecration of a natural division of
6.> Feast of Passover and Unleavened Bread
(Exodus 12:1-28; 23:15; Leviticus 23:4-8)
Followed by the Firstfruits [or Harvest]
(Exodus 23:16; Leviticus 23:11).
The "Passover" and the feast of "Unleavened Bread" as a unit
constituted the most important of the three great annual festivals
of Israel, with the other two being "Pentecost" and "Tabernacles".
EXO 12:1 The LORD said to Moses and Aaron in Egypt,
EXO 12:2 "This month is to be for you the first month, the first
month of your year.
EXO 12:3 Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth day
of this month each man is to take a lamb for his family, one for
EXO 12:4 If any household is too small for a whole lamb, they must
share one with their nearest neighbor, having taken into account the
number of people there are. You are to determine the amount of lamb
needed in accordance with what each person will eat.
EXO 12:5 The animals you choose must be year-old males without
defect, and you may take them from the sheep or the goats.
EXO 12:6 Take care of them until the fourteenth day of the month,
when all the people of the community of Israel must slaughter them
EXO 12:7 Then they are to take some of the blood and put it on the
sides and tops of the doorframes of the houses where they eat the
EXO 12:8 That same night they are to eat the meat roasted over the
fire, along with bitter herbs, and bread made without yeast.
EXO 12:9 Do not eat the meat raw or cooked in water, but roast it
over the fire--head, legs and inner parts.
EXO 12:10 Do not leave any of it till morning; if some is left till
morning, you must burn it.
EXO 12:11 This is how you are to eat it: with your cloak tucked
into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your
hand. Eat it in haste; it is the LORD'S Passover.
EXO 12:12 "On that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike
down every firstborn--both men and animals--and I will bring judg-
ment on all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD.
EXO 12:13 The blood will be a sign for you on the houses where you
are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you. No destructive
plague will touch you when I strike Egypt.
EXO 12:14 "This is a day you are to commemorate; for the genera-
tions to come you shall celebrate it as a festival to the LORD--a
EXO 12:15 For seven days you are to eat bread made without yeast.
On the first day remove the yeast from your houses, for whoever eats
anything with yeast in it from the first day through the seventh
must be cut off from Israel.
EXO 12:16 On the first day hold a sacred assembly, and another one
on the seventh day. Do no work at all on these days, except to
prepare food for everyone to eat--that is all you may do.
EXO 12:17 "Celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread, because it was
on this very day that I brought your divisions out of Egypt. Cele-
brate this day as a lasting ordinance for the generations to come.
EXO 12:18 In the first month you are to eat bread made without
yeast, from the evening of the fourteenth day until the evening of
the twenty-first day.
EXO 12:19 For seven days no yeast is to be found in your houses.
And whoever eats anything with yeast in it must be cut off from the
community of Israel, whether he is an alien or native-born.
EXO 12:20 Eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you must
eat unleavened bread."
EXO 12:21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to
them, "Go at once and select the animals for your families and
slaughter the Passover lamb.
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