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What is Atonement?

Written by: Killian, Greg    Posted on: 01/26/2005

Category: Educational


What is Atonement?
By Paqid Hilel ben David (Greg Killian)

I.  I want to see how `kippurim' is used and what it means: 
3725 kippur, kip-poor'; from 3722; expiation (only in plural):-atonement. 
Dictionary Trace - 3722 kaphar, kaw-far'; a prim. root; to cover (spec. with bitumen); fig. to expiate or condone, to placate or cancel:-appease, make (an) atonement, cleanse, disannul, forgive, be merciful, pacify, pardon, purge (away), put off, (make) reconcile (-liation). 

Shemot (Exodus) 29:35-37  "Do for Aaron and his sons everything I have commanded you, taking seven days to ordain them.  Sacrifice a bull each day as a sin offering to make atonement. Purify the altar by making atonement for it, and anoint it to consecrate it.  For seven days make atonement for the altar and consecrate it. Then the altar will be most holy, and whatever touches it will be holy. 

1.  The Altar was purified by making atonement for it. 

Shemot (Exodus) 30:6-10 Put the altar in front of the curtain that is before the ark of the Testimony--before the atonement cover that is over the Testimony--where I will meet with you.  "Aaron must burn fragrant incense on the altar every morning when he tends the lamps.  He must burn incense again when he lights the lamps at twilight so incense will burn regularly before HaShem for the generations to come.  Do not offer on this altar any other incense or any burnt offering or grain offering, and do not pour a drink offering on it.  Once a year Aaron shall make atonement on its horns. This annual atonement must be made with the blood of the atoning sin offering for the generations to come. It is most holy to HaShem." 

2.  Atonement was made on the horns of the altar. 

Shemot (Exodus) 30:11-16  Then HaShem said to Moses,  "When you take a census of the Israelites to count them, each one must pay HaShem a ransom for his life at the time he is counted. Then no plague will come on them when you number them  Each one who crosses over to those already counted is to give a half shekel, according to the sanctuary shekel, which weighs twenty gerahs. This half shekel is an offering to HaShem.  All who cross over, those twenty years old or more, are to give an offering to HaShem.  The rich are not to give more than a half shekel and the poor are not to give less when you make the offering to HaShem to atone for your lives.  Receive the atonement money from the Israelites and use it for the service of the Tent of Meeting. It will be a memorial for the Israelites before HaShem, making atonement for your lives." 

3.  Money is used to make atonement for or to ransom the life of as Israelite. 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 23:26-32  HaShem said to Moses,  "The tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. Hold a sacred assembly and deny yourselves, and present an offering made to HaShem by fire.  Do no work on that day, because it is the Day of Atonement, when atonement is made for you before HaShem your God.  Anyone who does not deny himself on that day must be cut off from his people.  I will destroy from among his people anyone who does any work on that day.  You shall do no work at all. This is to be a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live.  It is a Sabbath of rest for you, and you must deny yourselves. From the evening of the ninth day of the month until the following evening you are to observe your Sabbath." 

4.  The tenth day of the seventh month is the time for atonement. Was the census taken then? 

Bamidbar (Numbers) 5:5-10  HaShem said to Moses,  "Say to the Israelites: 'When a man or woman wrongs another in any way and so is unfaithful to HaShem, that person is guilty  And must confess the sin he has committed. He must make full restitution for his wrong, add one fifth to it and give it all to the person he has wronged.  But if that person has no close relative to whom restitution can be made for the wrong, the restitution belongs to HaShem and must be given to the priest, along with the ram with which atonement is made for him.  All the sacred contributions the Israelites bring to a priest will belong to him.  Each man's sacred gifts are his own, but what he gives to the priest will belong to the priest.'" 

5.  A ram was used to atone for sins between man and man, which makes us unfaithful to the Lord. 

Bamidbar (Numbers) 29:7-11  "'On the tenth day of this seventh month hold a sacred assembly. You must deny yourselves and do no work.  Present as an aroma pleasing to HaShem a burnt offering of one young bull, one ram and seven male lambs a year old, all without defect.  With the bull prepare a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil; with the ram, two-tenths;  And with each of the seven lambs, one-tenth.  Include one male goat as a sin offering, in addition to the sin offering for atonement and the regular burnt offering with its grain offering, and their drink offerings. 

6.  The goat on Yom HaKippurim was used for atonement. 

II.  I want to see how `kaphar' is used and what it means: 

3722 kaphar, kaw-far'; a prim. root; to cover (spec. with bitumen); fig. to expiate or condone, to placate or cancel:-appease, make (an) atonement, cleanse, disannul, forgive, be merciful, pacify, pardon, purge (away), put off, (make) reconcile (-liation). 

Bereshit (Genesis) 32:17-21  He instructed the one in the lead: "When my brother Esau meets you and asks, 'To whom do you belong, and where are you going, and who owns all these animals in front of you?'  Then you are to say, 'They belong to your servant Jacob. They are a gift sent to my lord Esau, and he is coming behind us.'"  He also instructed the second, the third and all the others who followed the herds: "You are to say the same thing to Esau when you meet him.  And be sure to say, 'Your servant Jacob is coming behind us.'" For he thought, "I will pacify him with these gifts I am sending on ahead; later, when I see him, perhaps he will receive me."  So Jacob's gifts went on ahead of him, but he himself spent the night in the camp. 

1.  Atonement that means to `pacify'. 

Shemot (Exodus) 29:29-37  "Aaron's sacred garments will belong to his descendants so that they can be anointed and ordained in them.  The son who succeeds him as priest and comes to the Tent of Meeting to minister in the Holy Place is to wear them seven days.  "Take the ram for the ordination and cook the meat in a sacred place.  At the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, Aaron and his sons are to eat the meat of the ram and the bread that is in the basket.  They are to eat these offerings by which atonement was made for their ordination and consecration. But no one else may eat them, because they are sacred. And if any of the meat of the ordination ram or any bread is left over till morning, burn it up. It must not be eaten, because it is sacred.  "Do for Aaron and his sons everything I have commanded you, taking seven days to ordain them. Sacrifice a bull each day as a sin offering to make atonement. Purify the altar by making atonement for it, and anoint it to consecrate it.  For seven days make atonement for the altar and consecrate it. Then the altar will be most holy, and whatever touches it will be holy. 

2.  How does atonement fit with ordination?

3.  Why does the Altar need atonement? 

Shemot (Exodus) 30:7-10  "Aaron must burn fragrant incense on the altar every morning when he tends the lamps.  He must burn incense again when he lights the lamps at twilight so incense will burn regularly before HaShem for the generations to come.  Do not offer on this altar any other incense or any burnt offering or grain offering, and do not pour a drink offering on it.  Once a year Aaron shall make atonement on its horns. This annual atonement must be made with the blood of the atoning sin offering for the generations to come. It is most holy to HaShem." 

Shemot (Exodus) 30:11-16  Then HaShem said to Moses,  "When you take a census of the Israelites to count them, each one must pay HaShem a ransom for his life at the time he is counted. Then no plague will come on them when you number them.  Each one who crosses over to those already counted is to give a half shekel, according to the sanctuary shekel, which weighs twenty gerahs. This half shekel is an offering to HaShem.  All who cross over, those twenty years old or more, are to give an offering to HaShem.  The rich are not to give more than a half shekel and the poor are not to give less when you make the offering to HaShem to atone for your lives.  Receive the atonement money from the Israelites and use it for the service of the Tent of Meeting. It will be a memorial for the Israelites before HaShem, making atonement for your lives." 

4. Here we see both words used within the same context. 

Shemot (Exodus) 32:25-30  Moses saw that the people were running wild and that Aaron had let them get out of control and so become a laughingstock to their enemies.  So he stood at the entrance to the camp and said, "Whoever is for HaShem, come to me." And all the Levites rallied to him.  Then he said to them, "This is what HaShem, the God of Israel, says: 'Each man strap a sword to his side. Go back and forth through the camp from one end to the other, each killing his brother and friend and neighbor.'"  The Levites did as Moses commanded, and that day about three thousand of the people died.  Then Moses said, "You have been set apart to HaShem today, for you were against your own sons and brothers, and he has blessed you this day."  The next day Moses said to the people, "You have committed a great sin. But now I will go up to HaShem; perhaps I can make atonement for your sin." 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 1:2-4 "Speak to the Israelites and say to them: 'When any of you brings an offering to HaShem, bring as your offering an animal from either the herd or the flock.  "'If the offering is a burnt offering from the herd, he is to offer a male without defect. He must present it at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting so that it will be acceptable to HaShem.  He is to lay his hand on the head of the burnt offering, and it will be accepted on his behalf to make atonement for him. 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 4:13-21  "'If the whole Israelite community sins unintentionally and does what is forbidden in any of HaShem'S commands, even though the community is unaware of the matter, they are guilty.  When they become aware of the sin they committed, the assembly must bring a young bull as a sin offering and present it before the Tent of Meeting.  The elders of the community are to lay their hands on the bull's head before HaShem, and the bull shall be slaughtered before HaShem.  Then the anointed priest is to take some of the bull's blood into the Tent of Meeting.  He shall dip his finger into the blood and sprinkle it before HaShem seven times in front of the curtain.  He is to put some of the blood on the horns of the altar that is before HaShem in the Tent of Meeting. The rest of the blood he shall pour out at the base of the altar of burnt offering at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.  He shall remove all the fat from it and burn it on the altar,  And do with this bull just as he did with the bull for the sin offering. In this way the priest will make atonement for them, and they will be forgiven.  Then he shall take the bull outside the camp and burn it as he burned the first bull. This is the sin offering for the community. 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 4:22-26  "'When a leader sins unintentionally and does what is forbidden in any of the commands of HaShem his God, he is guilty.  When he is made aware of the sin he committed, he must bring as his offering a male goat without defect.  He is to lay his hand on the goat's head and slaughter it at the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered before HaShem. It is a sin offering.  Then the priest shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering and pour out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar.  He shall burn all the fat on the altar as he burned the fat of the fellowship offering. In this way the priest will make atonement for the man's sin, and he will be forgiven. 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 4:27-35  "'If a member of the community sins unintentionally and does what is forbidden in any of HaShem'S commands, he is guilty.  When he is made aware of the sin he committed, he must bring as his offering for the sin he committed a female goat without defect.  He is to lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter it at the place of the burnt offering.  Then the priest is to take some of the blood with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering and pour out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar.  He shall remove all the fat, just as the fat is removed from the fellowship offering, and the priest shall burn it on the altar as an aroma pleasing to HaShem. In this way the priest will make atonement for him, and he will be forgiven.Vayikra (Leviticus) 4:32  "'If he brings a lamb as his sin offering, he is to bring a female without defect.  He is to lay his hand on its head and slaughter it for a sin offering at the place where the burnt offering is slaughtered.  Then the priest shall take some of the blood of the sin offering with his finger and put it on the horns of the altar of burnt offering and pour out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar.  He shall remove all the fat, just as the fat is removed from the lamb of the fellowship offering, and the priest shall burn it on the altar on top of the offerings made to HaShem by fire. In this way the priest will make atonement for him for the sin he has committed, and he will be forgiven. 

Atonement without blood, using flour! 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 5:1-18  "'If a person sins because he does not speak up when he hears a public charge to testify regarding something he has seen or learned about, he will be held responsible.  "'Or if a person touches anything ceremonially unclean--whether the carcasses of unclean wild animals or of unclean livestock or of unclean creatures that move along the ground--even though he is unaware of it, he has become unclean and is guilty.  "'Or if he touches human uncleanness--anything that would make him unclean--even though he is unaware of it, when he learns of it he will be guilty.  "'Or if a person thoughtlessly takes an oath to do anything, whether good or evil--in any matter one might carelessly swear about--even though he is unaware of it, in any case when he learns of it he will be guilty.  "'When anyone is guilty in any of these ways, he must confess in what way he has sinned  And, as a penalty for the sin he has committed, he must bring to HaShem a female lamb or goat from the flock as a sin offering; and the priest shall make atonement for him for his sin.  "'If he cannot afford a lamb, he is to bring two doves or two young pigeons to HaShem as a penalty for his sin--one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering.  He is to bring them to the priest, who shall first offer the one for the sin offering. He is to wring its head from its neck, not severing it completely,  And is to sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering against the side of the altar; the rest of the blood must be drained out at the base of the altar. It is a sin offering.  The priest shall then offer the other as a burnt offering in the prescribed way and make atonement for him for the sin he has committed, and he will be forgiven.  "'If, however, he cannot afford two doves or two young pigeons, he is to bring as an offering for his sin a tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering. He must not put oil or incense on it, because it is a sin offering.  He is to bring it to the priest, who shall take a handful of it as a memorial portion and burn it on the altar on top of the offerings made to HaShem by fire. It is a sin offering.  In this way the priest will make atonement for him for any of these sins he has committed, and he will be forgiven. The rest of the offering will belong to the priest, as in the case of the grain offering.'"  HaShem said to Moses:  "When a person commits a violation and sins unintentionally in regard to any of HaShem'S holy things, he is to bring to HaShem as a penalty a ram from the flock, one without defect and of the proper value in silver, according to the sanctuary shekel. It is a guilt offering.  He must make restitution for what he has failed to do in regard to the holy things, add a fifth of the value to that and give it all to the priest, who will make atonement for him with the ram as a guilt offering, and he will be forgiven.  "If a person sins and does what is forbidden in any of HaShem'S commands, even though he does not know it, he is guilty and will be held responsible.  He is to bring to the priest as a guilt offering a ram from the flock, one without defect and of the proper value. In this way the priest will make atonement for him for the wrong he has committed unintentionally, and he will be forgiven. 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 6:1-7  HaShem said to Moses:  "If anyone sins and is unfaithful to HaShem by deceiving his neighbor about something entrusted to him or left in his care or stolen, or if he cheats him,  Or if he finds lost property and lies about it, or if he swears falsely, or if he commits any such sin that people may do--  When he thus sins and becomes guilty, he must return what he has stolen or taken by extortion, or what was entrusted to him, or the lost property he found,  Or whatever it was he swore falsely about. He must make restitution in full, add a fifth of the value to it and give it all to the owner on the day he presents his guilt offering.  And as a penalty he must bring to the priest, that is, to HaShem, his guilt offering, a ram from the flock, one without defect and of the proper value.  In this way the priest will make atonement for him before HaShem, and he will be forgiven for any of these things he did that made him guilty." 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 7:7  "'The same law applies to both the sin offering and the guilt offering: They belong to the priest who makes atonement with them. 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 8:31-34  Moses then said to Aaron and his sons, "Cook the meat at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting and eat it there with the bread from the basket of ordination offerings, as I commanded, saying, 'Aaron and his sons are to eat it.'  Then burn up the rest of the meat and the bread.  Do not leave the entrance to the Tent of Meeting for seven days, until the days of your ordination are completed, for your ordination will last seven days.  What has been done today was commanded by HaShem to make atonement for you.  Vayikra (Leviticus) 9:7  Moses said to Aaron, "Come to the altar and sacrifice your sin offering and your burnt offering and make atonement for yourself and the people; sacrifice the offering that is for the people and make atonement for them, as HaShem has commanded." 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 10:16-17  When Moses inquired about the goat of the sin offering and found that it had been burned up, he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron's remaining sons, and asked,  "Why didn't you eat the sin offering in the sanctuary area? It is most holy; it was given to you to take away the guilt of the community by making atonement for them before HaShem. 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 12:6-8  "'When the days of her purification for a son or daughter are over, she is to bring to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting a year-old lamb for a burnt offering and a young pigeon or a dove for a sin offering.  He shall offer them before HaShem to make atonement for her, and then she will be ceremonially clean from her flow of blood. "'These are the regulations for the woman who gives birth to a boy or a girl.  If she cannot afford a lamb, she is to bring two doves or two young pigeons, one for a burnt offering and the other for a sin offering. In this way the priest will make atonement for her, and she will be clean.'" 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:14-31 The priest is to take some of the blood of the guilt offering and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot.  The priest shall then take some of the log of oil, pour it in the palm of his own left hand,  Dip his right forefinger into the oil in his palm, and with his finger sprinkle some of it before HaShem seven times.  The priest is to put some of the oil remaining in his palm on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot, on top of the blood of the guilt offering.  The rest of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one to be cleansed and make atonement for him before HaShem.  "Then the priest is to sacrifice the sin offering and make atonement for the one to be cleansed from his uncleanness. After that, the priest shall slaughter the burnt offering  And offer it on the altar, together with the grain offering, and make atonement for him, and he will be clean.  "If, however, he is poor and cannot afford these, he must take one male lamb as a guilt offering to be waved to make atonement for him, together with a tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil for a grain offering, a log of oil,  And two doves or two young pigeons, which he can afford, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering.  "On the eighth day he must bring them for his cleansing to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, before HaShem.  The priest is to take the lamb for the guilt offering, together with the log of oil, and wave them before HaShem as a wave offering.  He shall slaughter the lamb for the guilt offering and take some of its blood and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot.  The priest is to pour some of the oil into the palm of his own left hand,  And with his right forefinger sprinkle some of the oil from his palm seven times before HaShem.  Some of the oil in his palm he is to put on the same places he put the blood of the guilt offering--on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of his right hand and on the big toe of his right foot.  The rest of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one to be cleansed, to make atonement for him before HaShem.  Then he shall sacrifice the doves or the young pigeons, which the person can afford,  One as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering, together with the grain offering. In this way the priest will make atonement before HaShem on behalf of the one to be cleansed." 

Atonement for a house??? 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 14:48-53  "But if the priest comes to examine it and the mildew has not spread after the house has been plastered, he shall pronounce the house clean, because the mildew is gone.  To purify the house he is to take two birds and some cedar wood, scarlet yarn and hyssop.  He shall kill one of the birds over fresh water in a clay pot.  Then he is to take the cedar wood, the hyssop, the scarlet yarn and the live bird, dip them into the blood of the dead bird and the fresh water, and sprinkle the house seven times.  He shall purify the house with the bird's blood, the fresh water, the live bird, the cedar wood, the hyssop and the scarlet yarn.  Then he is to release the live bird in the open fields outside the town. In this way he will make atonement for the house, and it will be clean." 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:13-15  "'When a man is cleansed from his discharge, he is to count off seven days for his ceremonial cleansing; he must wash his clothes and bathe himself with fresh water, and he will be clean.  On the eighth day he must take two doves or two young pigeons and come before HaShem to the entrance to the Tent of Meeting and give them to the priest.  The priest is to sacrifice them, the one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. In this way he will make atonement before HaShem for the man because of his discharge. 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 15:25-30  "'When a woman has a discharge of blood for many days at a time other than her monthly period or has a discharge that continues beyond her period, she will be unclean as long as she has the discharge, just as in the days of her period.  Any bed she lies on while her discharge continues will be unclean, as is her bed during her monthly period, and anything she sits on will be unclean, as during her period.  Whoever touches them will be unclean; he must wash his clothes and bathe with water, and he will be unclean till evening.  "'When she is cleansed from her discharge, she must count off seven days, and after that she will be ceremonially clean.  On the eighth day she must take two doves or two young pigeons and bring them to the priest at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.  The priest is to sacrifice one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering. In this way he will make atonement for her before HaShem for the uncleanness of her discharge. 

Yom HaKippurim! 

Vayikra (Leviticus) 16:1-34  HaShem spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron who died when they approached HaShem.  HaShem said to Moses: "Tell your brother Aaron not to come whenever he chooses into the Most Holy Place behind the curtain in front of the atonement cover on the ark, or else he will die, because I appear in the cloud over the atonement cover.  "This is how Aaron is to enter the sanctuary area: with a young bull for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering.  He is to put on the sacred linen tunic, with linen undergarments next to his body; he is to tie the linen sash around him and put on the linen turban. These are sacred garments; so he must bathe himself with water before he puts them on.  From the Israelite community he is to take two male goats for a sin offering and a ram for a burnt offering.  "Aaron is to offer the bull for his own sin offering to make atonement for himself and his household. Then he is to take the two goats and present them before HaShem at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting.  He is to cast lots for the two goats--one lot for HaShem and the other for the scapegoat.  Aaron shall bring the goat whose lot falls to HaShem and sacrifice it for a sin offering.  But the goat chosen by lot as the scapegoat shall be presented alive before HaShem to be used for making atonement by sending it into the desert as a scapegoat.  "Aaron shall bring the bull for his own sin offering to make atonement for himself and his household, and he is to slaughter the bull for his own sin offering. He is to take a censer full of burning coals from the altar before HaShem and two handfuls of finely ground fragrant incense and take them behind the curtain.  He is to put the incense on the fire before HaShem, and the smoke of the incense will conceal the atonement cover above the Testimony, so that he will not die.  He is to take some of the bull's blood and with his finger sprinkle it on the front of the atonement cover; then he shall sprinkle some of it with his finger seven times before the atonement cover.  "He shall then slaughter the goat for the sin offering for the people and take its blood behind the curtain and do with it as he did with the bull's blood: He shall sprinkle it on the atonement cover and in front of it.  In this way he will make atonement for the Most Holy Place because of the uncleanness and rebellion of the Israelites, whatever their sins have been. He is to do the same for the Tent of Meeting, which is among them in the midst of their uncleanness.  No one is to be in the Tent of Meeting from the time Aaron goes in to make atonement in the Most Holy Place until he comes out, having made atonement for himself, his household and the whole community of Israel.  "Then he shall come out to the altar that is before HaShem and make atonement for it. He shall take some of the bull's blood and some of the goat's blood and put it on all the horns of the altar.  He shall sprinkle some of the blood on it with his finger seven times to cleanse it and to consecrate it from the uncleanness of the Israelites.  "When Aaron has finished making atonement for the Most Holy Place, the Tent of Meeting and the altar, he shall bring forward the live goat.  He is to lay both hands on the head of the live goat and confess over it all the wickedness and rebellion of the Israelites--all their sins--and put them on the goat's head. He shall send the goat away into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task.  The goat will carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall release it in the desert.  "Then Aaron is to go into the Tent of Meeting and take off the linen garments he put on before he entered the Most Holy Place, and he is to leave them there.  He shall bathe himself with water in a holy place and put on his regular garments. Then he shall come out and sacrifice the burnt offering for himself and the burnt offering for the people, to make atonement for himself and for the people.  He shall also burn the fat of the sin offering on the altar.  "The man who releases the goat as a scapegoat must wash his clothes and bathe himself with water; afterward he may come into the camp.  The bull and the goat for the sin offerings, whose blood was brought into the Most Holy Place to make atonement, must be taken outside the camp; their hides, flesh and offal are to be burned up. The man who burns them must wash his clothes and bathe himself with water; afterward he may come into the camp.  "This is to be a lasting ordinance for you: On the tenth day of the seventh month you must deny yourselves and not do any work--whether native-born or an alien living among you--  Because on this day atonement will be made for you, to cleanse you. Then, before HaShem, you will be clean from all your sins. It is a Sabbath of rest, and you must deny yourselves; it is a lasting ordinance.  The priest who is anointed and ordained to succeed his father as high priest is to make atonement. He is to put on the sacred linen garments And make atonement for the Most Holy Place, for the Tent of Meeting and the altar, and for the priests and all the people of the community.  "This is to be a lasting ordinan

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